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Inter-system code double differencing is an effective method for improving the positioning accuracy of low-cost receivers in complex environments. Due to the adoption of Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA), Globalnaya Navigazionnaya Sputnikovaya Sistema (GLONASS) code observations are affected by the Inter-Frequency Code Biases (IFCBs), which makes it difficult to calculate the Differential Inter-System Code Biases (DISCBs) between GLONASS and the Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) systems directly. In this contribution, the focus is on the performance of tightly combined Global Positioning System (GPS) and GLONASS code Double Difference (DD) positioning. After analysing the relationship between IFCBs and GLONASS channel numbers, an IFCB correction model and an inter-system code differencing model between GLONASS and GPS are proposed. Results show that even if there is no obvious relationship between IFCBs and channel numbers, the long-term stable IFCB values of each satellite can be obtained by using the proposed model. In addition, the GPS + GLONASS DISCB is also stable. Therefore, compared with the intra-system model, the inter-system model can benefit from prior IFCBs and DISCBs parameters and thus can significantly improve the positioning accuracy in obstructed environments.
Health translation readability assessment represents an important yet largely underexplored research area in translation studies. This chapter introduces an integrated analytical system developed for the computer-aided assessment of the readability of Chinese health translations. The system comprises two components which are a computerised Chinese text lexical profile analyser; and a data-driven statistical instrument that can be used to diagnose and label the readability level of Chinese translations and non-translated health education materials. The online Chinese lexical profile analyser was informed by recent research in corpus linguistics and Chinese educational literacy. It includes thirty-nine individual and compound lexical features to enable in-depth and systematic analyses of the lexical complexity and textual coherence of Chinese health education and promotion materials. The statistical instrument was developed using a large Australian Chinese Health Translation Corpus. The statistical instrument built contains two measurement scales which are related to the information load and the lexical technicality as two important indicators of the readability of Chinese health education resources. The study demonstrated the viability and effectiveness of developing digital analytical tools and instruments for the objective assessment of the readability of health materials, especially health translations which hold the key to the success and sustainability of health promotion and communication in multicultural societies with diverse population groups.
CrFeNiTix (x = 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, and 0.6 molar ratio) compositionally complex alloys were fabricated by vacuum arc melting to investigate the microstructure, hardness, and compressive properties. The results revealed that CrFeNiTix alloys consisted of the principal face-centered cubic (FCC) phase and body-centered cubic (BCC) solid solution, with an amount of (Ni, Ti)-rich hexagonal close-packed phase. CrFeNiTix alloys exhibited the typical dendrite. Ti0.2 and Ti0.3 alloys were composed of FCC and BCC solid solutions in the dendrite, as well as ε (Ni3Ti) and R (Ni2.67Ti1.33) phases in the inter-dendrite, simultaneously. For Ti0.4, Ti0.5, and Ti0.6 alloys, (Fe, Cr)-rich solid solution separated out and ε phase transformed into R phase gradually. Meanwhile, TEM analysis indicated that Ti0.4 alloy matrix consisted of the principal FCC phase containing (Ni, Ti)-rich intragranular nanoprecipitates. The hardness values of CrFeNiTix alloys were increased with the addition of Ti content and the high compressive strength of CrFeNiTix alloys was maintained, which was attributed to the solid solution strengthening and precipitation hardening.
To understand the effect of pH value on the corrosion and corrosion fatigue behavior of AM60 magnesium alloy, electrochemical tests, viz., electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and fatigue tests, were carried out in PBS (phosphate buffered saline) solutions of pH 5.2, 7.4, and 9.0. The microstructure was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results are as follows: (i) the corrosion mechanism of AM60 under different pH values was different according to EIS; (ii) the corrosion resistance and corrosion fatigue life reduced in the following order: pH 9.0 > pH 7.4 > pH 5.2; (iii) the crack initiation was associated with hydrogen embrittlement of AM60 on the basis of fractographic analysis.
Two phases of diabase-sill-forming magmatism are recorded within the Badu anticline where magmas were emplaced into upper Palaeozoic carbonates and clastic rocks of the Youjiang fold-and-thrust belt in the SW South China Block, China. Zircons from these diabase units yield weighted mean U–Pb ages of 249.2±2.0 Ma and 187.1±3.3 Ma, and magmatic oxygen fugacity values from ‒20 to ‒6 (average of ‒12, equating to FMQ +5) and ‒20 to ‒10 (average of ‒15, equating to FMQ +2), respectively. These data indicate that the sills were emplaced during Early Triassic and Early Jurassic times. The discovery of c. 250 Ma mafic magmatism in this area was probably related to post-flood-basalt extension associated with the Emeishan mantle plume or rollback of the subducting Palaeo-Tethys slab. The c. 190 Ma diabase sills indicate that the southwestern South China Block records Early Jurassic mafic magmatism and lithospheric extension that was likely associated with a transition from post-collisional to within-plate tectonic regimes. The emplacement of diabase intrusions at depth may have driven hydrothermal systems, enabling the mobilization of elements from sedimentary rocks and causing the formation of a giant epigenetic metallogenic domain. The results indicate that high-oxygen-fugacity materials within basement rocks caused crustal contamination of the magmas, contributing to the wide range of oxygen fugacity conditions recorded by the Au-bearing Badu diabase. In addition, data from inherited xenocrystic zircons within the Badu diabase and detrital zircons from basement rocks suggest that the Neoproterozoic Jiangshao suture extends to the south of the Badu anticline.
We consider compound Poisson claims reserving models applied to the paid claims and to the number of payments run-off triangles. We extend the standard Poisson-gamma assumption to account for over-dispersion in the payment counts and to account for various mean and variance structures in the individual payments. Two generalized linear models are applied consecutively to predict the unpaid claims. A bootstrap is used to estimate the mean squared error of prediction and to simulate the predictive distribution of the unpaid claims. We show that the extended compound Poisson models make reasonable predictions of the unpaid claims.
Outside surface fluctuations of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsule greatly affect the implosion performance. An atomic force microscope (AFM)-based profilometer is developed to precisely characterize the capsule surface with nanometer resolution. With the standard nine surface profiles and the complete coverage data, 1D and 2D power spectra are obtained to quantitatively qualify the capsule. Capsule center fast aligning, orbit traces automatic recording, 3D capsule orientation have been studied to improve the accuracy and efficiency of the profilometer.
Approaching the problem from the internal factors and in particular the inherent state model of a Kalman Filter, this paper presents a novel Strapdown Inertial Navigation System (SINS) modelling, which is obtained with a pseudo-north-oriented mechanisation in a pseudo-geographic frame. Improved modelling associated with the backward algorithm is proposed to achieve velocity-aided in-motion alignment. Compared with traditional algorithms, the proposed method can eliminate the influence of alignment model on the performance of initial alignment caused by SINS modelling. On the other hand, the backward process can still be used to accelerate the process of alignment. As a result, the proposed method is expected to assist those methods only considered from external factors (such as coarse accuracy, process noise, measurement noise, and so on) to improve the stability and robustness of a velocity-aided in-motion alignment system and to solve the modelling problem of high latitude alignment without sacrificing alignment accuracy. Finally, simulations and field experiments with a navigation-grade SINS demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed method.
We propose a Bayesian spline model which uses a natural cubic B-spline basis with knots placed at every development period to estimate the unpaid claims. Analogous to the smoothing parameter in a smoothing spline, shrinkage priors are assumed for the coefficients of basis functions. The accident period effect is modeled as a random effect, which facilitate the prediction in a new accident period. For model inference, we use Stan to implement the no-U-turn sampler, an automatically tuned Hamiltonian Monte Carlo. The proposed model is applied to the workers' compensation insurance data in the United States. The lower triangle data is used to validate the model.
Phase predictions and characterizations on as-solidified septenary refractory high-entropy alloy, CrMoNbReTaVW, are presented. The simulated solidification process predicts a single body-centered-cubic (BCC) crystal structure with the tendency of compositional segregation. X-ray diffraction results confirm the “single-phase-like” BCC structure, while further experimental characterizations reveal the existence of multiple grains with significantly different compositions yet the same crystal structure and similar lattice parameters.
Monochamol (2-undecyloxy-1-ethanol) is a male-produced aggregation pheromone for several Monochamus Dejean (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) species. We conducted trapping experiments in Canada, Poland, and China to test whether monochamol was attractive to additional Monochamus species and if attraction was synergised by plant volatiles and bark beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) pheromones. We provide the first evidence of attraction for M. urussovii (Fischer) and M. saltuarius (Gebler) to monochamol or monochamol+kairomones. The highest numbers of M. urussovii were captured in traps baited with monochamol+plant volatiles (Manuka oil, ethanol and (95/5±) α−pinene). Captures of M. saltuarius were highest in traps baited with monochamol, with the addition of cubeb oil tending to reduce captures. The highest numbers of M. scutellatus (Say) were captured in traps baited with monochamol+kairomones. A similar pattern in trap captures was found for M. notatus (Drury), M. marmorator Kirby, M. carolinensis (Olivier), and M. mutator LeConte. Detection rates, that is, proportion of traps capturing at least one specimen, was highest for traps baited with monochamol plus kairomones, particularly for less-common species. These results support the emerging hypothesis that pheromone compounds can attract related cerambycid species with cumulative evidence for attraction to monochamol for 12 species of Monochamus worldwide.
Previous research has revealed that foot rotation of the supporting foot in a single support phase could increase walking speed. This paper presents a method for force-controlled bipeds to realize foot rotation by breaking the kinematic contact constraint between the supporting foot and the ground. An inverse dynamics controller is proposed to make the biped model controllable even when the constraint is broken. In addition, a linear inverted pendulum model is extended to make its ZMP adjustable so that the ZMP can be predefined as required. When the planned ZMP is in the toe, the kinematic contact constraint will be broken and foot rotation can be achieved. A walking simulation demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Maintaining good positioning performance has always been a challenging task for Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) applications in partially obstructed environments. A method that can optimise positioning performance in harsh environments is proposed. Using a carrier double-difference (DD) model, the influence of the satellite-pair geometry on the correlation among different equations has been researched. This addresses the critical relationship between DD equations and its ill-posedness. From analysing the collected multi-constellation observations, a strong correlation between the condition number and the positioning standard deviation is detected as the correlation coefficient is larger than 0·92. Based on this finding, a new method for determining the reference satellites by using the minimum condition number rather than the maximum elevation is proposed. This reduces the ill-posedness of the co-factor matrix, which improves the single-epoch positioning solution with a fixed DD ambiguity. Finally, evaluation trials are carried out by masking some satellites to simulate common satellite obstruction scenarios including azimuth shielding, elevation shielding and strip shielding. Results indicate the proposed approach improves the positioning stability with multi-constellation satellites notably in harsh environments.
To examine changes in periconceptional folic acid supplementation behaviour among Chinese women of reproductive age after the implementation of a folic acid supplementation programme.
Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted.
One survey was before (2002–2004) and the other was after (2011–2012) implementation of the programme, both were conducted in two areas of China with different prevalence of neural tube defects. Information on supplementation behaviours was collected in face-to-face interviews with women early in their pregnancy.
A total of 1257 and 1736 pregnant women participated before and after the programme, respectively.
The rate of periconceptional folic acid supplementation increased from 15 % to 85 % in the high-prevalence population and from 66 % to 92 % in the low-prevalence population. However, more than half of the women began taking the supplement after learning they were pregnant. The proportion of women who began taking folic acid before their last menstrual period decreased after the programme in rural areas with both a high and low prevalence of neural tube defects.
Although periconceptional folic acid supplementation among Chinese women increased substantially after the programme, supplementation was often initiated too late to be effective in preventing neural tube defects. Educational and promotional campaigns should focus on how to increase the rate of folic acid supplementation before pregnancy.
Despite substantial research, uncertainty remains about the clinical and etiological heterogeneity of major depression (MD). Can meaningful and valid subtypes be identified and would they be stable cross-culturally?
Symptoms at their lifetime worst depressive episode were assessed at structured psychiatric interview in 6008 women of Han Chinese descent, age ⩾30 years, with recurrent DSM-IV MD. Latent class analysis (LCA) was performed in Mplus.
Using the nine DSM-IV MD symptomatic A criteria, the 14 disaggregated DSM-IV criteria and all independently assessed depressive symptoms (n = 27), the best LCA model identified respectively three, four and six classes. A severe and non-suicidal class was seen in all solutions, as was a mild/moderate subtype. An atypical class emerged once bidirectional neurovegetative symptoms were included. The non-suicidal class demonstrated low levels of worthlessness/guilt and hopelessness. Patterns of co-morbidity, family history, personality, environmental precipitants, recurrence and body mass index (BMI) differed meaningfully across subtypes, with the atypical class standing out as particularly distinct.
MD is a clinically complex syndrome with several detectable subtypes with distinct clinical and demographic correlates. Three subtypes were most consistently identified in our analyses: severe, atypical and non-suicidal. Severe and atypical MD have been identified in multiple prior studies in samples of European ethnicity. Our non-suicidal subtype, with low levels of guilt and hopelessness, may represent a pathoplastic variant reflecting Chinese cultural influences.
A new route for atom-economical synthesis of functional polymers was developed. Oxidative polycoupling of 3,5-dimethyl-1-phenylpyrazole with 4,4’-(α,ω-alkylenedioxy) bis(diphenylacetylene)s and 1,2-diphenyl-1,2-bis[4-(phenylethynyl)phenyl]ethene, respectively, were catalyzed by [Cp*RhCl2]2, 1,2,3,4-tetraphenylcyclopenta-1,3-diene and copper(II) acetate in dimethylformamide under stoichiometric imbalance conditions, affording soluble poly(pyrazolylnaphthalene)s in satisfactory yields (isolation yield up to 82%) with high molecular weights (Mw up to 35700). All the polymers were thermally stable, losing little of their weight at high temperatures of 323–422 oC. They possessed good film-forming property and their thin solid films showed high refractive indices (RI = 1.747–1.593) in a wide wavelength region of 400−1000 nm. The polymer carrying tetraphenylethene unit displayed a phenomenon of aggregation-induced emission and showed enhanced light emission in the aggregated state.
The symptoms of major depression (MD) are clinically diverse. Do they form coherent factors that might clarify the underlying nature of this important psychiatric syndrome?
Symptoms at lifetime worst depressive episode were assessed at structured psychiatric interview in 6008 women of Han Chinese descent, age ⩾30 years with recurrent DSM-IV MD. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatoryfactor analysis (CFA) were performed in Mplus in random split-half samples.
The preliminary EFA results were consistently supported by the findings from CFA. Analyses of the nine DSM-IV MD symptomatic A criteria revealed two factors loading on: (i) general depressive symptoms; and (ii) guilt/suicidal ideation. Examining 14 disaggregated DSM-IV criteria revealed three factors reflecting: (i) weight/appetite disturbance; (ii) general depressive symptoms; and (iii) sleep disturbance. Using all symptoms (n = 27), we identified five factors that reflected: (i) weight/appetite symptoms; (ii) general retarded depressive symptoms; (iii) atypical vegetative symptoms; (iv) suicidality/hopelessness; and (v) symptoms of agitation and anxiety.
MD is a clinically complex syndrome with several underlying correlated symptom dimensions. In addition to a general depressive symptom factor, a complete picture must include factors reflecting typical/atypical vegetative symptoms, cognitive symptoms (hopelessness/suicidal ideation), and an agitated symptom factor characterized by anxiety, guilt, helplessness and irritability. Prior cross-cultural studies, factor analyses of MD in Western populations and empirical findings in this sample showing risk factor profiles similar to those seen in Western populations suggest that our results are likely to be broadly representative of the human depressive syndrome.
Previous studies support Beck's cognitive model of vulnerability to depression. However, the relationship between his cognitive triad and other clinical features and risk factors among those with major depression (MD) has rarely been systematically studied.
The three key cognitive symptoms of worthlessness, hopelessness and helplessness were assessed during their lifetime worst episode in 1970 Han Chinese women with recurrent MD. Diagnostic and other risk factor information was assessed at personal interview. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated by logistic regression.
Compared to patients who did not endorse the cognitive trio, those who did had a greater number of DSM-IV A criteria, more individual depressive symptoms, an earlier age at onset, a greater number of episodes, and were more likely to meet diagnostic criteria for melancholia, postnatal depression, dysthymia and anxiety disorders. Hopelessness was highly related to all the suicidal symptomatology, with ORs ranging from 5.92 to 6.51. Neuroticism, stressful life events (SLEs) and a protective parental rearing style were associated with these cognitive symptoms.
During the worst episode of MD in Han Chinese women, the endorsement of the cognitive trio was associated with a worse course of depression and an increased risk of suicide. Individuals with high levels of neuroticism, many SLEs and high parental protectiveness were at increased risk for these cognitive depressive symptoms. As in Western populations, symptoms of the cognitive trio appear to play a central role in the psychopathology of MD in Chinese women.