Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) is the most common malignant primary brain
neoplasm having a mean survival time of <24 months. This figure remains
constant, despite significant progress in medical research and treatment.
The lack of an efficient anti-tumor immune response and the micro-invasive
nature of the glioma malignant cells have been explained by a multitude of
immune-suppressive mechanisms, proven in different models. These
immune-resistant capabilities of the tumor result in a complex interplay
this tumor shares with the immune system. We present a short review on the
immunology of GBM, discussing the different unique pathological and
molecular features of GBM, current treatment modalities, the principles of
cancer immunotherapy and the link between GBM and melanoma. Current
knowledge on immunological features of GBM, as well as immunotherapy past
and current clinical trials, is discussed in an attempt to broadly present
the complex and formidable challenges posed by GBM.