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In this chapter, Melissa Williams begins from the challenge that most contemporary democratic theory is rooted exclusively in Euro-American thought traditions. This is problematic not only for understanding democracy in non-Western contexts but also for crafting democratic theory that can be responsive to globalization. How can a theory of democracy claim global validity if it draws exclusively on Western political experience? The chapter adopts an experimental and playful approach to mapping a strategy of inquiry for deparochializing democratic theory in a global age. It identifies points of contact between contemporary debates over global democracy and forms of contemporary politics that draw on non-Western understandings of the political, focusing on the scales of politics that are most salient for democratic political action: global, state, transnational, and local. The chapter considers three case studies of non-Western conceptions of democracy at these different scales: contemporary Chinese cosmopolitanism (tianxia theory), state-led local democratization in China, and the transnational peasants’ movement, La Vía Campesina. Drawing connections between these cases and the literature on democracy in the global era, the chapter argues that the cases press us toward a transcultural, trans-scalar, translocal, and systemic understanding of democracy’s global potential.
This introductory chapter articulates the unifying vision for the volume: that comparative political theory is a transformative and intergenerational practice for the discipline as a whole, in our teaching as well as our research. It is not a niche subfield of political theory, of interest only to specialized experts in particular thought traditions around the world, but is salient to all political theorists, regardless of their methodological or theoretical commitments, who seek modes of political inquiry and analysis that are salient for the twenty-first-century challenges of a now-globalized modernity. The chapter canvasses the structural obstacles to the transformation of the discipline, explores its tendencies to reproduce itself in the image of “the Western canon,” and situates the task of comparative political theory within the larger frame of the tasks of political theory simpliciter. It also addresses the fact that the practice of deparochializing political theory may vary depending on a particular scholar’s location in the world and position in the global academy. Finally, it provides an overview of the contributors’ past contributions to “deparochializing political theory” and a summary of their chapters’ arguments.
In a world no longer centered on the West, what should political theory become? Although Western intellectual traditions continue to dominate academic journals and course syllabi in political theory, up-and-coming contributions of 'comparative political theory' are rapidly transforming the field. Deparochializing Political Theory creates a space for conversation amongst leading scholars who differ widely in their approaches to political theory. These scholars converge on the belief that we bear a collective responsibility to engage and support the transformation of political theory. In these exchanges, 'deparochializing' political theory emerges as an intellectual, educational and political practice that cuts across methodological approaches. Because it is also an intergenerational project, this book presses us to re-imagine our teaching and curriculum design. Bearing the marks of its beginnings in East Asia, Deparochializing Political Theory seeks to de-center Western thought and explore the evolving tasks of political theory in an age of global modernity.
Multispectral imaging – the acquisition of spatially contiguous imaging data in a modest number (~3–16) of spectral bandpasses – has proven to be a powerful technique for augmenting panchromatic imaging observations on Mars focused on geologic and/or atmospheric context. Specifically, multispectral imaging using modern digital CCD photodetectors and narrowband filters in the 400–1100 nm wavelength region on the Mars Pathfinder, Mars Exploration Rover, Phoenix, and Mars Science Laboratory missions has provided new information on the composition and mineralogy of fine-grained regolith components (dust, soils, sand, spherules, coatings), rocky surface regions (cobbles, pebbles, boulders, outcrops, and fracture-filling veins), meteorites, and airborne dust and other aerosols. Here we review recent scientific results from Mars surface-based multispectral imaging investigations, including the ways that these observations have been used in concert with other kinds of measurements to enhance the overall scientific return from Mars surface missions.
Operational stress describes individual behavior in response to the occupational demands and tempo of a mission. The stress response of military personnel involved in combat and peace-keeping missions has been well-described. The spectrum of effect on medical professionals and support staff providing humanitarian assistance, however, is less well delineated. Research to date concentrates mainly on shore-based humanitarian missions.
The goal of the current study was to document the pattern of operational stress, describe factors responsible for it, and the extent to which these factors impact job performance in military and civilian participants of Continuing Promise 2011 (CP11), a ship-based humanitarian medical mission.
This was a retrospective study of Disease Non-Battle Injury (DNBI) data from the medical sick-call clinic and from weekly self-report questionnaires for approximately 900 US military and civilian mission participants aboard the USNS COMFORT (T-AH 20). The incidence rates and job performance impact of reported Operational Stress/Mental Health (OS/MH) issues and predictors (age, rank, occupation, service branch) of OS/MH issues (depression, anxiety) were analyzed over a 22-week deployment period.
Incidence rates of OS/MH complaints from the sick-call clinic were 3.7% (4.5/1,000 persons) and 12.0% (53/1,000 persons) from the self-report questionnaire. The rate of operational stress increased as the mission progressed and fluctuated during the mission according to ship movement. Approximately 57% of the responders reported no impact on job performance. Younger individuals (enlisted ranks E4-6, officer ranks O1-3), especially Air Force service members, those who had spent only one day off ship, and those who were members of specific directorates, reported the highest rates of operational stress.
The overall incidence of OS/MH complaints was low in participants of CP11 but was under-estimated by clinic-based reporting. The OS/MH complaints increased as the mission progressed, were more prevalent in certain groups, and appeared to be related to ship’s movement. These findings document the pattern of operational stress in a ship-based medical humanitarian mission and confirm unique ship-based stressors. This information may be used by planners of similar missions to develop mitigation strategies for known stressors and by preventive medicine, behavioral health specialists, and mission leaders to develop sensitive surveillance tools to better detect and manage operational stress while on mission.
ScoutenWT, MehalickML, YoderE, McCoyA, BrannockT, RiddleMS. The Epidemiology of Operation Stress during Continuing Promise 2011: A Humanitarian Response and Disaster Relief Mission aboard a US Navy Hospital Ship. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(4):393–402.
What makes a government legitimate? Why do people voluntarily comply with laws, even when no one is watching? The idea of political legitimacy captures the fact that people obey when they think governments' actions accord with valid principles. For some, what matters most is the government's performance on security and the economy. For others, only a government that follows democratic principles can be legitimate. Political legitimacy is therefore a two-sided reality that scholars studying the acceptance of governments need to take into account. The diversity and backgrounds of East Asian nations provides a particular challenge when trying to determine the level of political legitimacy of individual governments. This book brings together both political philosophers and political scientists to examine the distinctive forms of political legitimacy that exist in contemporary East Asia. It is essential reading for all academic researchers of East Asian government, politics and comparative politics.