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Evaluate associations between orange juice (OJ) consumption and anthropometric parameters.
Prospective cohort study assessing the association between OJ intake and changes in BMI and height-for-age Z-score (HAZ) using mixed linear regression.
Children from the Growing Up Today Study II (n 7301), aged 9–16 years at enrollment.
OJ consumption was positively associated with 2-year change in HAZ in girls (mean (se)): 0·03 (0·01) for non-consumers, 0·03 (0·02) for 1–3 glasses/month, 0·06 (0·01) for 1–6 glasses/week and 0·09 (0·02) for ≥1 glass/d after full adjustment (Ptrend = 0·02). However, OJ consumption was not associated with 2-year change in BMI percentile (kg/m2, mean (se)): –0·44 (0·36) for non-consumers, 0·20 (0·41) for 1–3 glasses/month, –0·04 (0·34) for 1–6 glasses/week and –0·77 (0·62) for ≥1 glass/d in girls, Ptrend = 0·81; –0·94 (0·53) for non-consumers, –1·68 (0·52) for 1–3 glasses/month, –0·81 (0·38) for 1–6 glasses per week and –1·12 (0·61) for ≥1 glass/d in boys, Ptrend = 0·49.
OJ consumption was favourably associated with height growth but unrelated to excess weight gain. OJ may be a useful alternative to whole fruit in the event that whole fruit intake is insufficient.
Whole eggs are rich sources of several micronutrients. However, it is not well known how egg consumption contributes to overall nutrient adequacy and how it may relate to CVD risk factors. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine how whole egg consumption contributes to nutrient intakes and to assess its association with CVD risk factors in US adults.
The study was conducted using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003–2012, a nationally representative survey of the US civilian population.
Adults who completed two dietary recalls and provided information on relevant sociodemographic factors were included in the study (n 21 845).
Approximately 73 % of adults were classified as whole egg consumers. Egg consumption was associated with greater intakes of protein, saturated fat, mono- and polyunsaturated fats, Fe, Zn, Ca, Se, choline, and several other vitamins and minerals. Egg consumption was associated with a higher likelihood of meeting or exceeding recommendations for several micronutrients. Egg intake was positively associated with dietary cholesterol consumption, but not with serum total cholesterol (TC) when adjusted for multiple potential confounders. In multiple linear regression analyses, TAG, TAG:HDL-cholesterol and TC:HDL-cholesterol were significantly lower with greater egg consumption. Egg consumption had no significant relationship with LDL-cholesterol or C-reactive protein, but was associated with higher BMI and waist circumference.
Whole eggs are important dietary contributors of many nutrients and had either beneficial or non-significant associations with most CVD risk biomarkers examined.
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