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In order to reveal the quantitative relationship between fatigue crack deflection path and cross-sectional grain boundary (GB) arrangement of metallic nanolayered composites (NLCs), a stochastic model was established based on the interface-dominant fatigue damage for the ultrafine-scale NLCs. The model indicates that the crack deflection length decreases with decreasing GB arrangement deviation and grain size of constituent layers. The observation and quantitative analysis of fatigue cracking behavior of the Cu/W multilayers with a layer thickness of 5 and 20 nm was conducted to verify the model.
Clozapine treatment increases the risk of agranulocytosis, but findings on the epidemiology of agranulocytosis have been inconsistent. This meta-analysis examined the prevalence of agranulocytosis and related death in clozapine-treated patients.
A literature search in the international (PubMed, PsycINFO, and EMBASE) and Chinese (WanFang, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Sinomed) databases was conducted. Prevalence estimates of agranulocytosis and related death in clozapine-treated patients were synthesized with the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis program using the random-effects model.
Thirty-six studies with 260 948 clozapine-treated patients published between 1984 and 2018 were included in the meta-analysis. The overall prevalence of agranulocytosis and death caused by agranulocytosis were 0.4% (95% CI 0.3–0.6%) and 0.05% (95% CI 0.03–0.09%), respectively. The prevalence of agranulocytosis was moderated by sample size, study quality, year of publication, and that of data collection.
The prevalence of clozapine-associated agranulocytosis is low. Agranulocytosis-related death appears rare.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The goal of this study was to determine the impact of an RN-guided preoperative educational intervention in a minimally invasive gynecologic oncology surgery cohort. Our specific objectives include: 1. To assess the impact of preoperative education on quality outcomes such as length of stay and discharge by noon rates. 2. To characterize the differential burden of post-operative communications on nursing staff in patients who received education versus those who did not. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: This was a retrospective cohort study. We identified thirteen gynecologic oncology patients scheduled for minimally invasive surgeries (laparoscopic and robot-assisted) between March 2017 and July 2017. These patients served as the pilot for a quality improvement project comprised of a preoperative teaching session by a gynecologic oncology registered nurse (RN). Patients also received an educational booklet, designed by gynecologic oncology care team members including nurses and physicians. Educational topics included expectations for pre-, intra-, and post-operation; guidelines for post-op care at home, important contact information, and postoperative medication instructions. Patients were also given a prescription for their post-operative medications and asked to fill them before their surgeries. Following their surgeries, patients were asked to take a voluntary and anonymous 8-item online survey assessing their satisfaction with the educational intervention, their procedure, and their hospital stay. We matched these patients in a one-to-two ratio, to patients not included in the pilot, on the basis of surgery type and age. All subjects and controls spoke English as their primary language. We abstracted data from the electronic medical record including pathologic diagnosis, number of postoperative communications (telephone and email), content of postoperative communications, and various clinical characteristics. Outcome measures include length-of-stay, discharge-by-noon rate, percentage of patients with postoperative questions, and number of postoperative concerns communicated via telephone or email. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: There were 39 patients in the final cohort; thirteen of whom who participated in the pilot project, POET (Perioperative Educational Tool). Thirty-nine percent of POET patients had questions regarding their surgery or post-op care as compared with 61.5% of controls (P = 0.087). Nineteen percent of controls had questions about their postoperative medications, compared with zero percent of POET patients (P = 0.046). POET patients had an average of 0.69 postoperative communications, compared with 1.12 in controls. The length of stay was 8 hours in POET patients and 26 hours in controls (P = 0.317). The discharge before noon rate was 20% in POET patients and 25% in controls (P = 0.41). Of the 10 POET patients who completed the anonymous online survey, 100% liked the approach to teaching; 100% felt that they received consistent information regarding surgery, hospital stay, and post-op care, 100% felt prepared at discharge, 100% picked up their postoperative medications without difficulty prior to surgery. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Patients uniformly had a positive response to their preoperative education. Although our primary outcomes were not statistically significant, the results of this unpowered, observational study suggest that anticipatory education such as we provided, may decrease the burden of post-operative communications related to surgical expectations. A preoperative teaching intervention may be especially valuable in educating patients about their postoperative medications. Although POET patients had significantly fewer questions about their postoperative medications, refilling their medications before their procedures did not seem to have an effect on discharge-by-noon rates. This may demonstrate that delays in disposition are not influenced by post-operative prescriptions. One limitation of our study is that we did not prospectively measure patient satisfaction with surgical care. Another limitation is that the pilot educational intervention was conducted entirely in English. To our knowledge, there exists no analysis of the effect of English language proficiency on outcomes such as patient satisfaction, length of stay, and discharge-by-noon rates, and other clinical outcomes in this surgical patient population. It is well-demonstrated in the literature that limited English proficiency contributes negatively to health care quality. Our next steps involve establishing a prospective study to measure the effects of preoperative education on patient satisfaction with their procedure, post-operative communications, and discharge by noon rates. We also plan to administer POET to Spanish- and Chinese-language speakers, to better understand the effect of limited English proficiency on our outcome measures of interest.
Fatigue properties of Mo/W multilayers with individual layer thickness (λ) of 5, 20, 50 and 100 nm on flexible polyimide substrates were investigated. The experimental results show that the fatigue resistance increases with decreasing λ from 100 nm to 20 nm, and reaches the maximum at λ=20 nm, and then decreases when further decreasing λ. Fatigue cracks of Mo/W multilayers with different λ were found to propagate along columnar grain boundary in the out-of-plane direction and along the boundary of cluster structures. The enhanced fatigue resistance is attributed to the larger cluster inclination angles and the more tortuous in-plane cracking paths.
Energy restriction (ER) has been widely studied as a novel intervention, and its ability to prolong life has been fully demonstrated. For example, ER can significantly extend the lifespans of model flies, worms, rodents and other mammals. The role of ER in renal protection has also been elucidated. In preclinical studies, adjusting total energy intake or consumption of specific nutrients has prophylactic or therapeutic effects on ageing-related kidney disease and acute and chronic kidney injury. Amino acid restriction has gradually attracted attention. ER mimetics have also been studied in depth. The protective mechanisms of ER and ER mimetics for renal injury include increasing AMP-activated protein kinase and sirtuin type 1 (Sirt1) levels and autophagy and reducing mammalian target of rapamycin, inflammation and oxidative stress. However, the renal protective effect of ER has mostly been investigated in rodent models, and the role of ER in patients cannot be determined due to the lack of large randomised controlled trials. To protect the kidney, the mechanism of ER must be thoroughly researched, and more accurate diet or drug interventions need to be identified.
There is increasing evidence of an association between depressive symptoms and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in cross-sectional studies, but the longitudinal association between depressive symptoms and risk of MCI onset is less clear. The authors investigated whether baseline symptom severity of depression was predictive of time to onset of symptoms of MCI.
These analyses included 300 participants from the BIOCARD study, a cohort of individuals who were cognitively normal at baseline (mean age = 57.4 years) and followed for up to 20 years (mean follow-up = 2.5 years). Depression symptom severity was measured using the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D). The authors assessed the association between dichotomous and continuous HAM-D and time to onset of MCI within 7 years versus after 7 years from baseline (reflecting the mean time from baseline to onset of clinical symptoms in the cohort) using Cox regression models adjusted for gender, age, and education.
At baseline, subjects had a mean HAM-D score of 2.2 (SD = 2.8). Higher baseline HAM-D scores were associated with an increased risk of progression from normal cognition to clinical symptom onset ≤ 7 years from baseline (p = 0.043), but not with progression > 7 years from baseline (p = 0.194). These findings remained significant after adjustment for baseline cognition.
These results suggest that low levels of depressive symptoms may be predictive of clinical symptom onset within approximately 7 years among cognitively normal individuals and may be useful in identifying persons at risk for MCI due to Alzheimer’s disease.
Improvement of environmental cleaning in hospitals has been shown to decrease in-hospital cross transmission of pathogens. Several objective methods, including aerobic colony counts (ACCs), the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence assay, and the fluorescent marker method have been developed to assess cleanliness. However, the standard interpretation of cleanliness using the fluorescent marker method remains uncertain.
To assess the fluorescent marker method as a tool for determining the effectiveness of hospital cleaning.
A prospective survey study.
An academic medical center.
The same 10 high-touch surfaces were tested after each terminal cleaning using (1) the fluorescent marker method, (2) the ATP assay, and (3) the ACC method. Using the fluorescent marker method under study, surfaces were classified as totally clean, partially clean, or not clean. The ACC method was used as the standard for comparison.
According to the fluorescent marker method, of the 830 high-touch surfaces, 321 surfaces (38.7%) were totally clean (TC group), 84 surfaces (10.1%) were partially clean (PC group), and 425 surfaces (51.2%) were not clean (NC group). The TC group had significantly lower ATP and ACC values (mean ± SD, 428.7 ± 1,180.0 relative light units [RLU] and 15.6 ± 77.3 colony forming units [CFU]/100 cm2) than the PC group (1,386.8 ± 2,434.0 RLU and 34.9 ± 87.2 CFU/100 cm2) and the NC group (1,132.9 ± 2,976.1 RLU and 46.8 ± 119.2 CFU/100 cm2).
The fluorescent marker method provided a simple, reliable, and real-time assessment of environmental cleaning in hospitals. Our results indicate that only a surface determined to be totally clean using the fluorescent marker method could be considered clean.
With the development of remote sensing and geostatistical technology, complex environmental variables are increasingly easily quantified and applied in modelling soil organic carbon (SOC). However, this emphasizes data redundancy and multicollinearity problems adding to the difficulty in selecting dominant influential auxiliary variables and uncertainty in estimating SOC stocks. The current paper considers the spatial characteristics of SOC density (SOCD) to construct prediction models of SOCD on the basis of reducing the data dimensionality and complexity using the principal component analysis (PCA) method. A total of 260 topsoil samples were collected from Chahe town, China. Eight environmental variables (elevation, aspect, slope, normalized difference vegetation index, normalized difference moisture index, nearest distance to construction area and road, and land use degree comprehensive index) were pre-analysed by PCA and then extracted as the main principal component variables to construct prediction models. Two geostatistical approaches (ordinary kriging and ordinary co-kriging) and two regression approaches (ordinary least squares and geographically weighted regression (GWR)) were used to estimate SOCD. Results showed that PCA played an important role in reducing the redundancy and multicollinearity of the auxiliary variables and GWR achieved the highest prediction accuracy in these four models. GWR considered not only the spatial characteristics of SOCD but also the related valuable information of the auxiliary attributes. In summary, PCA-GWR is a promising spatial method used here to predict SOC stocks.
Disturbance of functionality is one of the core features of schizophrenia, and has deleterious effects on a patient’s employment, increased healthcare costs, and a large societal burden. Thus, if a patient’s disability status could be predicted, and interventions needed identified in advance, poor outcomes could be prevented. To achieve this aim, we developed a method by which to assess dynamic changes of dysfunction and estimate the lifetime duration of disability in patients with schizophrenia, as a proxy for assessing their specialized healthcare needs.
The proposed method was developed based on a nationwide database and a cross-sectional survey. The primary analysis investigated the dynamic change in the proportion of patients with manifested disability over time, while the secondary analysis estimated the lifetime duration of disability, obtained as the proportion of patients with manifested disability multiplied by the survival probability throughout the life of patients.
The average lifetime duration of manifested disability of global functioning was estimated to be 20.9 years, which represents approximately 73% of the whole lifetime of patients. The duration of disability in socially-useful activities was estimated to be 15.6 years, while that in personal and social relationships was 17.5 years. The female patients had a longer duration of manifested disability (22.9 years) than the male patients (19.5 years).
The developed method of analysis indicated that the longest lifetime durations of manifest disability were observed in the areas of socially-useful activities and personal and social relationships, and the proportions of patients with these disabilities rapidly increased at 200 months after diagnosis.
Introduction: To investigate the effects of paroxetine (PAR) on motor and cognitive function recovery in patients with non-depressed ischemic stroke (nD-AIS).
Methods: One hundred sixty-seven patients hospitalized for non-depressed acute ischemic stroke were selected and divided into treatment (T) and control (C) groups using a random number table. All patients received conventional secondary ischemic stroke prevention and rehabilitation training; patients in Group T additionally received treatment with PAR (10 mg/day during week 1 and 20 mg/day thereafter) for 3 months. The follow-up observation lasted 6 months. The Fugl–Meyer motor scale (FMMS), Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA), and Hamilton depression scale (HAMD) were used on D0, D15, D90, and D180 (T0, 1, 2, and 3, respectively; D180 = 90 days after treatment cessation) after study initiation, and scores were compared between the groups.
Results: The FMMS and MoCA scores differed significantly between Groups T and C at T2 and T3 (p < .05); by contrast, these scores did not differ significantly between the groups at T1 (p > .05). Furthermore, the HAMD scores differed significantly between the two groups at T3 (p < .05), but not at T1 and T2 (p > .05).
Conclusions: PAR treatment may improve motor and cognitive function recovery in patients with nD-AIS. Moreover, PAR may reduce the occurrence of depression after stroke.
In the light curves of some solar-type stars, both rotational modulation (caused by corotating bright or dark magnetic features) and flare phenomena can be seen simultaneously. Based on these light curve observations, the relation between stellar magnetic feature activity (reflected by the rotational modulation component of the light curves) and flare activity can be investigated. Here, we analyze the light curve data of a flare-abundant solar-type star, KIC 6034120, observed with Kepler space telescope, and describe magnetic feature activity property by fluctuation range of light curves and flare activity property by time occupation ratio of flares. Distinct phase difference between long-term magnetic feature activity and flare activity is found for this star, which indicates that the source regions of stellar flares (e.g., starspots) on this star do not dominate the rotational modulation of light curves, yet they might be related to a same stellar dynamo process.
Little is known about the combined use of benzodiazepines and antidepressants in older psychiatric patients. This study examined the prescription pattern of concurrent benzodiazepines in older adults treated with antidepressants in Asia, and explored its demographic and clinical correlates.
The data of 955 older adults with any type of psychiatric disorders were extracted from the database of the Research on Asian Psychotropic Prescription Patterns for Antidepressants (REAP-AD) project. Demographic and clinical characteristics were recorded using a standardized protocol and data collection procedure. Both univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed.
The proportion of benzodiazepine and antidepressant combination in this cohort was 44.3%. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that higher doses of antidepressants, younger age (<65 years), inpatients, public hospital, major comorbid medical conditions, antidepressant types, and country/territory were significantly associated with more frequent co-prescription of benzodiazepines and antidepressants.
Nearly, half of the older adults treated with antidepressants in Asia are prescribed concurrent benzodiazepines. Given the potentially adverse effects of benzodiazepines, the rationale of benzodiazepines and antidepressants co-prescription needs to be revisited.
The novel visible-light-responsive direct solid-state Z-scheme g-C3N4/BiOI heterojunction has been synthesized successfully by means of a solid phase calcination method and used for the degradation of microcystin-LR (MC-LR). The layered g-C3N4 disperses on the surface of BiOI microspheres. The samples are characterized by FESEM, HRTEM, XRD, FT-IR, UV-vis spectroscopy, XPS, BET, PL, and Mott–Sckottky. The photocatalytic activity and photodegradation mechanism of the as-prepared g-C3N4/BiOI microsphere photocatalysts are conducted under visible light irradiation using MC-LR as the target pollutant. The g-C3N4/BiOI material exhibits superior photocatalytic performance when compared with pure BiOI, the possible reason is the efficient separation of photogenerated carriers at the interface between g-C3N4 and BiOI. The heterostructure is responsible for the improved separation efficiency of photogenerated electron–hole pairs and thus the higher photocatalytic activity. The possible photocatalytic mechanism is proposed based on relative band positions of these two semiconductors.