The continued use of finite fossil fuel resources has shifted thinking toward a potential future bioeconomy, and the field of polymer science will play a critical role in valorization of bio-derived materials. Interest in renewable resources is constantly increasing, backed up by new environmental regulations and economic considerations. Biomass is abundant and diverse, and polymeric materials based on renewable feedstocks represent a viable alternative to fossil resources. Bio-oil—a dark brown, free-flowing organic liquid mixture—is a product of fast pyrolysis or liquefaction of biomass. Bio-oil generally comprises a large amount of water and hundreds of organic chemical compounds that can be further broken down into families of reactive structures, capable of producing new synthetic pathways to design and synthesize high-performance biopolymers and bioresins using lignocellulosic biomass. These new polymeric materials have demonstrated a unique combination of thermal resistance and low cost intrinsic of the biomass utilized, as well as superior mechanical performance of polymeric resins sufficient to compete with high-performance structural resins and coating materials.