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The Western-type diet is associated with an elevated risk of Alzheimer’s disease and other milder forms of cognitive impairment. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of the environmental enrichment on amyloid and tau pathology in high-fat and high-sucrose-fed rats.
In total, 40 adult male rats were categorised into two main groups according to their housing conditions: enriched environment (EE, n=16) and standard housing condition (n=24). The groups were further divided into five subgroups that received standard diet, high-fat diet, and high-sucrose diet. We performed the analysis of amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) (1–40), Aβ(1–42), amyloid precursor protein (APP), and tau levels in the hippocampus of rats that were maintained under standard housing conditions or exposed to an EE.
The EE decreased the Aβ(1–40), Aβ(1–42), APP, and tau levels in high-fat and high-sucrose-fed rats.
This observation shows that EE may rescue diet-induced amyloid and tau pathology.
Quercetin, one of the most potent flavonol in the family of flavonoids, has been shown to have benefits against diabetes and its complications. In the present study, we investigated effects of quercetin on depression-like behaviours and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis in diabetic rats.
Experimental diabetes was induced by using streptozotocin, and either 50 or 100 mg/kg quercetin was intraperitoneally administered for 21 days. Following the last treatment, animals were subjected to the forced swim test, and subsequently, the blood was obtained by cardiac puncture to measure plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone (CORT) levels.
A significant increase of the total immobile time, accompanied by a decrease in the immobility latency, which suggests a depressive status, was observed in diabetic animals that was reversed by the treatment of 50 mg/kg quercetin. However, the higher dose of quercetin (100 mg/kg) was ineffective in alleviating depression-like behaviours. The plasma concentrations of ACTH, and total- and free-CORT were not affected by both doses of quercetin.
Therefore, we concluded that the antidepressant-like effects of quercetin in diabetes are independent of the HPA axis.
To determine the efficacy of a lanolin-based gel in preventing radioactive particle and viral penetration.
Paired, stacked filter discs were held in a stainless steel support, and the gel was applied manually to the upper surface of the upper filter. Indicator solution containing either radioactive viral particles (3H-labeled simian virus 40 or 3H-labeled woodchuck hepatitis virus) or 20 u1 or 100 u1 of 32P-labeled radioactive compounds of much lower molecular weight then were applied to the upper filter. The filter discs were separated after 30 minutes, and the lower disc was examined for radioactivity in a liquid scintillation counter.
Transmission of radioactive particles was statistically significantly reduced by the application of the ointment on the upper filter (from 6.7 ± 0.1 × 105 counts per minute [cpm] to 88 ± 38 cpm). Transmission of both labeled viral particles also was reduced to a similar degree.
Application of protective ointment to the filters significantly reduces transmission of radioactive viral particles and smaller radioactive compounds through filter discs. Use of this ointment may offer similar mechanical protection against the transmission of viruses between patient and healthcare provider. (Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 1991;12:93-95.)
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