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During panendoscopy, the anesthesiologist and surgeon must share the airway, with different objectives. The anesthesiologist must deliver oxygen, remove carbon dioxide, provide anesthesia and protect the airway from soiling or aspiration. The surgeon requires an immobile, unobstructed surgical field and adequate time for diagnostic evaluation and intervention. Some patients requiring panendoscopy will present with critical airway obstruction and in these circumstances the safest approach is to proceed to elective tracheostomy under local anesthesia prior to any further endoscopic evaluation. Ventilation techniques can be considered in terms of open and closed systems. A closed system implies ventilation via a cuffed endotracheal tube (ETT). An open system without an ETT is more commonly used for panendoscopy. Panendoscopy is a brief yet highly stimulating procedure that requires deep anesthesia, obtunded hemodynamic reflexes, an immobile surgical field and rapid emergence with early return of protective airway reflexes.