Huisache is a major brush problem on native rangelands and pastures in South Texas. Although herbicide applications to foliage provide very high plant-kill levels, the same herbicides have not proven reliable when applied as broadcast ground or aerial foliar treatments. Aerial and ground broadcast herbicide foliar treatments were applied to 31 huisache sites. Soil temperature and soil moisture were measured at a depth of 30 cm at the time of herbicide application. Cumulative rainfall before herbicide application was recorded. Across all aerial treatments, plant mortality was 69% for plants shorter than 2 m versus 40% for plants taller than 2 m. Across all aerial- and ground-treated sites, plants shorter than 2 m had an average 89% mortality when cumulative 2-wk rainfall was at least 50 mm, versus 72% mortality with cumulative rainfall less than 50 mm. Average plant mortality was 84% when 4-wk cumulative rainfall was at least 76 mm, versus 71% with rainfall less than 76 mm; and 85% when, on a dry-to-wet scale of 0 to 10, soil moisture measured at least 8, versus 71% when soil moisture measured less than 8. In a separate aerial trial, plant-mortality effects of spray droplet size (417, 630, and 800 µm) and spray volume (37.4 L ha−1 and 93.5 L ha−1) were replicated and tested at a single study site in 2014. Plant mortality was lowest for the 93.5 L ha−1 and 800 µm treatment. Plant mortality rates for other treatments were similar, demonstrating a greater importance of droplet size than spray volume. Targeting huisache trees shorter than 2 m, when cumulative rainfall has reached at least 50 mm or at least 76 mm 2 or 4 wk before application, respectively, as well as maintaining spray droplet sizes no larger than 630 µm can increase herbicide efficacy with foliar broadcast applications.