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Traditional food systems in indigenous groups have historically had health-promoting benefits. The objectives of the present study were to determine if a traditional dietary pattern of Pacific Northwest Tribal Nations (PNwT) could be derived using reduced rank regression and if the pattern would be associated with lower BMI and current Dietary Reference Intakes.
The baseline data from the Communities Advancing the Studies of Tribal Nations Across the Lifespan (CoASTAL) cohort were used to derive dietary patterns for the total sample and those with plausibly reported energy intakes.
Pacific Northwest Coast of Washington State, USA.
Adult PNwT members of the CoASTAL cohort with laboratory-measured weight and height and up to 4 d of dietary records (n 418).
A traditional dietary pattern did not evolve from the analysis. Moderate consumption of a sweet drinks dietary pattern was associated with lower BMI while higher consumption of a vegetarian-based dietary pattern was associated with higher BMI. The highest consumers of the vegetarian-based dietary pattern were almost six times more likely to meet the recommendations for dietary fibre.
Distinct dietary patterns were found. Further exploration is needed to confirm whether the lack of finding a traditional pattern is due to methodology or the loss of a traditional dietary pattern among this population. Longitudinal assessment of the CoASTAL cohort's dietary patterns needs to continue.
To review existing methods and illustrate the use of a new, simple method for identifying inaccurate reports of dietary energy intake (rEI).
Comparison of rEI with energy requirements estimated by using total energy expenditure predicted (pTEE) from age, weight, height and sex using a previously published equation. Propagation of error calculations was performed and cut-offs for excluding rEI at plus or minus two standard deviations (±2 SD) and ±1 SD for the agreement between rEI and pTEE were established.
Dietary survey in a US national cohort: the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII), 1994–96.
Men and non-pregnant, non-lactating women aged 21–45 years in the CSFII who provided two multiple-pass 24-hour recalls, height and weight(n = 3755).
Average rEI was 77% of pTEE in men, and 64% of pTEE in women. Calculated cut-offs were rEI <40% or >160% of pTEE (±2 SD) and <70% or >130% of pTEE (±1 SD), respectively. Use of only the ±1 SD cut-offs, not the ±2 SD cut-offs, resulted in a relationship between rEI and body weight similar to what was expected (based on an independently calculated relationship between rEI and measured TEE). Exclusion of rEI outside either the ±2 SD (11% of subjects) or ±1 SD (57% of subjects) cut-offs did not affect mean reported macronutrient intakes, but did markedly affect relationships between dietary composition and body mass index.
When examining relationships between diet and health, use of ±1 SD cut-offs may be preferable to ±2 SD cut-offs for excluding inaccurate dietary reports.
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