Many controversies remain with respect to how best to work with individuals who are challenged by cognitive impairments. Yet in the last decade, there has been substantial new research and a proliferation of literature, which has served to clarify major principles underlying cognitive interventions, and specified training procedures and teaching techniques that have demonstrated some effectiveness. Increasingly, it is possible to identify what techniques are likely to work for a particular individual, based on a number of variables including their cognitive profile, level of insight, and capacity for self-regulation. Education, the development of compensatory behaviours, the use of specialised instructional techniques and the inclusion of activities to improve self awareness and self-efficacy are but a few of the important components of most efforts at rehabilitation for cognitive impairments. Cognitive rehabilitation must be creative, eclectic, functionally oriented, and based in a partnership between clients, families/caregivers, and professionals.