Wild parsnip is an invasive species with a global distribution in temperate climates. Parsnips are native to Eurasia and have been cultivated for more than five centuries. It is unclear whether the global invasion of this species is a consequence of escape from cultivation or the accidental introduction of a Eurasian wild subspecies. In this study, we used nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) markers to evaluate the genetic structure of wild parsnip in its native range (Europe) and in three distinct geographic regions where it is considered invasive: eastern North America, western North America, and New Zealand. We also compared wild and cultivated parsnips to determine whether they are genetically distinct. From 112 individuals, we recovered 14 ITS and 27 cpDNA haplotypes. One ITS haplotype was widespread; few haplotypes were rare singletons. In contrast, at least two lineages of cpDNA haplotypes were recovered, with several novel haplotypes restricted to Europe. Cultivated parsnips were not genetically distinct from wild parsnips, and numerous wild parsnip populations shared haplotypes with cultivars. High genetic diversity was recovered in all three regions, suggesting multiple introductions.