A population-based record linkage case cohort of 239,995 births, to 119,214 women, born in Western Australia from 1980 to 2001 inclusive, was used to measure the recording of selected indicators of maternal health (current and prior) during pregnancy. We compared records of women with singleton pregnancies with that in twin pregnancies Mothers of first- and second-born singletons (n = 117,647) were compared with women with a first-born singleton followed by twins (n = 1,567). Binary indicators were used to calculate population prevalence of medical conditions, pregnancy complications and birth outcomes. Infant outcomes included stillbirth, low birthweight, preterm birth and birth defects. Women with twins were significantly older and taller, with similar rates of medical conditions and pregnancy complications during first singleton pregnancies compared with women with two consecutive singletons. However, during their second pregnancy, women with twins had significantly higher rates of essential hypertension, pre-eclampsia, threatened abortion, premature rupture of the membranes and ante partum hemorrhage with abruption than women with singletons. For both groups, maternal conditions in the first pregnancy were underreported in the second pregnancy, including diabetes, epilepsy, asthma, chronic renal dysfunction and essential hypertension. At the second birth, twins were 3 times more likely to be stillborn, 17 times more likely to be low birthweight and 4 times more likely to be delivered preterm compared with singletons. This research demonstrates the importance for epidemiologists and others, of having access to a complete maternal medical history for analyses of risks associated with maternal, infant and childhood morbidity.