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Food production is one of the most significant achievements in Andean history. The domestication of plants and animals presented an enormous challenge, relating to changing technologies, settlement patterns, and social organization. This paper aims to assess Atacama Desert population dynamics and their relationship to the domestication of plants and animals through chronological modeling using kernel density estimation on radiocarbon (14C) dates, assuming that a higher 14C probability density is related to more intense human occupation. The analysis is based on a 14C dataset comprising 1003 14C dates (between 11,000 and 150 BP) from 243 archaeological sites in the Arica and Tarapacá regions of northern Chile, collected from published data. We observed two population-dynamics inflection points for these regions. First, starting at ca. 3000 BP, constant population growth occurred, which was related to horticulture in the Arica region and to agriculture in the Tarapacá region. Second, between ca. 1000 and 400 BP, a general population rise occurred due to the consolidation of intensive agriculture in the lowlands and precordillera altitudinal belts in both regions and the integration of the coast and the altiplano into macro-regional population dynamics.
Physical violence and social conflict have been widely studied in the ancient societies of the Andes. However, studies about violence are scarce for the Formative period of northern Chile (1000 BC–AD 900). Evidence from these investigations is generally interpreted as interpersonal violence, whose protagonists are mostly men. Here, we present the case of an adult female recovered from the Tarapacá 40 cemetery (Tarapacá region, Chile) displaying lesions suggestive of trauma. We reconstruct her life and death in the context of this era's social and political conditions. Results of our bioanthropological characterization, cranial trauma analysis, carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis, and recording of the funerary offerings suggest she was a local member of the Formative community buried in the Tarapacá 40 cemetery and that she suffered intentional lethal lesions. Her death is unusual because there are no previous bioarchaeological records of lethal violence against women in the Tarapacá region. The osteobiography of this woman reflects a context characterized by an increase in inequality and social complexity, whereby physical violence could be used as a mechanism of internal regulation and exercise of power during the Formative period.
En este trabajo se describen las relaciones que las sociedades humanas establecieron con su entorno durante el período Formativo (3000-1000 aP) en la Pampa del Tamarugal, Desierto de Atacama, desde una perspectiva teórico-metodológica que pone el acento en el potencial del registro ecofactual. Éste, al mediar entre lo cultural y lo ambiental, proporciona información vital para una mejor comprensión de la relación entre naturaleza y cultura construida por estas sociedades. Queremos demostrar que este proceso forma parte de una larga historia de racionalización del desierto y de sus recursos silvestres, locales e introducidos, así como de la vivencia particular que tuvieron estas comunidades andinas. Por consiguiente, proponemos que la intervención humana en la Pampa del Tamarugal puede ser entendida como un cambio no sólo ecológico y económico, sino también cosmológico.
The Colombian government recently concluded a decades-long civil war by signing a peace agreement with the largest of its opposing guerrilla armies: Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia (Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, or FARC). It has also been involved in negotiations with the other major rebel group, Ejército Nacional de Liberación (National Liberation Army, or ELN). Both groups have been fighting the Colombian government since the early 1960s. Divisions in Colombian society over how to end the war with the FARC that bedeviled the protracted peace negotiations in Havana, Cuba, and led to the Colombian people’s initial rejection of the peace agreement are enduring challenges to a sustainable peace. These divisions are likely to reappear as the rebels demobilize, surrender their role in narcotics trafficking, and re-enter Colombian society and politics.
Colombia has embarked on one of the most complex and multifaceted efforts at building peace and delivering justice the world has ever seen. The sheer size and scope of the Colombian government’s agreement with the FARC guerrillas ensure the path will be neither easy nor short. In fact, there is more than one available path to peace and justice; those destinations may be accessed through a variety of new and novel trails, as well as well-worn roads. Some paths are narrow and difficult, while others “promise” a straight and wide transit to a brighter future. In this world of possibilities, the Colombian peace process offers no guarantees. The journeys are as diverse and difficult to traverse as Colombia’s geography. In this conclusion, we review the progress we have made in understanding how this journey will unfold, what challenges and opportunities may be waiting up ahead, and when and how the scholarly community can best explain how the future might look. More often than not, we must be content with posing the questions that we ought to pursue in the hope of finding these answers.
This chapter seeks to trace the trajectories of two emblematic peacebuilding initiatives at the local level in order to investigate the similarities and differences in their hybridization logics. The initiatives are the Comunidad de Paz de San José de Apartadó [Peace Community of San José de Apartadó] and the Asamblea Constituyente de Tarso [Constituent Municipal Assembly of Tarsus]. The analysis of the trajectories of both these initiatives is based on the perspective of conflict transformation from knowledge of local circumstances in order to examine to what extent the concept of peace infrastructure is applicable to these two experiences. As long as the concept of “Infrastructures for Peace” refers to the networks of peacebuilding, it allows the analysis of the interactions between the local peacebuilding experiences and other actors and processes at different scales, from the very local to the international.
For decades a bitter civil war between the Colombia government and armed insurgent groups tore apart Colombian society. After protracted negotiations in Havana, a peace agreement was accepted by the Colombian government and the FARC rebel group in 2016. This volume will provide academics and practitioners throughout the world with critical analyses regarding what we know generally about the post-war peace building process and how this can be applied to the specifics of the Colombian case to assist in the design and implementation of post-war peace building programs and policies. This unique group of Colombian and international scholars comment on critical aspects of the peace process in Colombia, transitional justice mechanisms, the role of state and non-state actors at the national and local levels, and examine what the Colombian case reveals about traditional theories and approaches to peace and transitional justice.
Estudiamos el imperialismo incaico en el contexto de las formaciones socioterritoriales del Colesuyu durante la época prehispánica tardía (siglos quince y dieciséis). Por su poblamiento con alto grado de multietnicidad e imbricación socioterritorial, además de su heterogeneidad biogeográfica entre el Pacífico y el Altiplano, esta región de los Valles Occidentales de los Andes Centro-Sur planteó un reto geopolítico para su integración imperial. Nos interesamos aquí por el caso de los Altos de Arica, que los archivos coloniales describen como un espacio multiétnico, con complejos sistemas de asentamiento interdigitados, extendidos entre el altiplano de Carangas y el litoral de Arica. A partir de un catastro arqueogeográfico, complementado con datos de excavaciones y dataciones, analizamos el proceso de ordenamiento incaico del valle precordillerano de Belén (ca. 3.000 m snm), el cual era conocido como Tocoroma en los archivos coloniales y constituía la principal isla del archipiélago carangas en la vertiente occidental andina del 18° S. Evidenciamos la producción de un paisaje agrícola imperial en el valle y discutimos la función nodal de Tocoroma-Belén en el contexto de la integración socioterritorial de la transecta Arica-Carangas. Asimismo, el estudio confirma el protagonismo del Tawantinsuyu en la estructuración de los archipiélagos verticales de los Andes Centro-Sur, además de documentar la diversidad de los dispositivos de hegemonía imperial implementados para este fin.
Pica 8 is a Late Intermediate Period (AD 900–1450) cemetery located in the Atacama Desert. Burials at the site present unexpectedly high variability in δ13C (–8‰ to –16‰) and δ15N (10‰ to 24‰) values in their skeletal tissues, implying highly diverse diets. There are two possible explanations for this variability: the first is diachronic change in diet while the second involves synchronic sociocultural distinctions. To distinguish between them a radiocarbon (14C) dating program (n=23) was initiated. The presumed importance of marine foods adds the complication of a marine reservoir effect. To address this problem, paired 14C dates were obtained on human bone and camelid textiles from nine graves. The results fall into two groups, one showing an average offset of 117±9 14C yr, and the other no statistically significant offsets. We conclude that the contribution of marine foods to bone collagen at Pica 8 was less than previously supposed. Other factors must be invoked to account for the unusually high human δ15N values at the site. Manuring crops with sea-bird guano emerges as a probable explanation. No relationship with chronology is seen implying the presence of considerable diversity in diets and hence lifeways within the Pica 8 community.