SiC fibers (High Nicalon S -HNS and Tyranno SA3 -Ty-SA3) submitted to heat treatments in neutral atmosphere up to 1900°C were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and TEM observations then submitted to tensile tests up to 1800°C. The microstructural changes in both materials were determined by XRD using a modified Hall-Williamson method introducing an anisotropy parameter taking into account the high density of planar defects of the SiC-3C structure. HNS fibers exhibit significant modifications in the CDD size which drastically increases from 24 nm to 70 nm in the range 1600°C to 1800°C and in the microstrains which decrease from 0.0015 to 0.0005 between 1750°C to 1850°C. Concerning the Ty-SA3 fibers, no evolution of CDD size and microstrains has been observed. The mechanical properties of single fibers were investigated after the heat treatments showing decreases in the tensile strength reaching up to 20% for Tyranno SA3 and 50% for High Nicalon S. The Weibull moduli were also significantly affected. These results are correlated to the fiber structural and microstructural evolutions.