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Psychiatric rehabilitation (PR) can improve functioning in people with severe mental illness (SMI), but outcomes are still suboptimal. Cognitive impairments have severe implications for functioning and might reduce the effects of PR. It has been demonstrated that performance in cognitive tests can be improved by cognitive remediation (CR). However, there is no consistent evidence that CR as a stand-alone intervention leads to improvements in real-life functioning. The present study investigated whether a combination of PR and CR enhances the effect of a stand-alone PR or CR intervention on separate domains of functioning.
A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of PR combined with CR in people with SMI was conducted, reporting on functioning outcomes. A multivariate meta-regression analysis was carried out to evaluate moderator effects.
The meta-analysis included 23 studies with 1819 patients. Enhancing PR with CR had significant beneficial effects on vocational outcomes (e.g. employment rate: SMD = 0.41), and social skills (SMD = 0.24). No significant effects were found on relationships and outcomes of community functioning. Effects on vocational outcomes were moderated by years of education, intensity of the intervention, type of CR approach and integration of treatment goals for PR and CR. Type of PR was no significant moderator.
Augmenting PR by adding cognitive training can improve vocational and social functioning in patients with SMI more than a stand-alone PR intervention. First indications exist that a synergetic mechanism also works the other way around, with beneficial effects of the combined intervention compared with a stand-alone CR intervention.
Psychological interventions may be beneficial in bipolar disorder.
To evaluate the efficacy of psychological interventions for adults with
A systematic review of randomised controlled trials was conducted.
Outcomes were meta-analysed using RevMan and confidence assessed using
the GRADE method.
We included 55 trials with 6010 participants. Moderate-quality evidence
associated individual psychological interventions with reduced relapses
at post-treatment (risk ratio (RR) = 0.66, 95% CI 0.48–0.92) and
follow-up (RR = 0.74, 95% CI 0.63–0.87), and collaborative care with a
reduction in hospital admissions (RR =0.68, 95% CI 0.49–0.94).
Low-quality evidence associated group interventions with fewer depression
relapses at post-treatment and follow-up, and family psychoeducation with
reduced symptoms of depression and mania.
There is evidence that psychological interventions are effective for
people with bipolar disorder. Much of the evidence was of low or very low
quality thereby limiting our conclusions. Further research should
identify the most effective (and cost-effective) interventions for each
phase of this disorder.
Meta-analyses on psychological treatment for depression in individuals with a somatic disease are limited to specific underlying somatic diseases, thereby neglecting the generalisability of the interventions.
To examine the effectiveness of cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) for depression in people with a diversity of somatic diseases.
Meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials evaluating CBT for depression in people with a somatic disease. Severity of depressive symptoms was pooled using the standardised mean difference (SMD).
Twenty-nine papers met inclusion criteria. Cognitive–behavioural therapy was superior to control conditions with larger effects in studies restricted to participants with depressive disorder (SMD =–0.83, 95% CI –1.36 to –0.31, P<0.001) than in studies of participants with depressive symptoms (SMD =–0.16, 95% CI –0.27 to –0.06, P = 0.001). Subgroup analyses showed that CBT was not superior to other psychotherapies.
Cognitive–behavioural therapy significantly reduces depressive symptoms in people with a somatic disease, especially in those who meet the criteria for a depressive disorder.
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