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Optical tracking systems typically trade off between astrometric precision and field of view. In this work, we showcase a networked approach to optical tracking using very wide field-of-view imagers that have relatively low astrometric precision on the scheduled OSIRIS-REx slingshot manoeuvre around Earth on 22 Sep 2017. As part of a trajectory designed to get OSIRIS-REx to NEO 101955 Bennu, this flyby event was viewed from 13 remote sensors spread across Australia and New Zealand to promote triangulatable observations. Each observatory in this portable network was constructed to be as lightweight and portable as possible, with hardware based off the successful design of the Desert Fireball Network. Over a 4-h collection window, we gathered 15 439 images of the night sky in the predicted direction of the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft. Using a specially developed streak detection and orbit determination data pipeline, we detected 2 090 line-of-sight observations. Our fitted orbit was determined to be within about 10 km of orbital telemetry along the observed 109 262 km length of OSIRIS-REx trajectory, and thus demonstrating the impressive capability of a networked approach to Space Surveillance and Tracking.
To develop a pediatric research agenda focused on pediatric healthcare-associated infections and antimicrobial stewardship topics that will yield the highest impact on child health.
The study included 26 geographically diverse adult and pediatric infectious diseases clinicians with expertise in healthcare-associated infection prevention and/or antimicrobial stewardship (topic identification and ranking of priorities), as well as members of the Division of Healthcare Quality and Promotion at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (topic identification).
Using a modified Delphi approach, expert recommendations were generated through an iterative process for identifying pediatric research priorities in healthcare associated infection prevention and antimicrobial stewardship. The multistep, 7-month process included a literature review, interactive teleconferences, web-based surveys, and 2 in-person meetings.
A final list of 12 high-priority research topics were generated in the 2 domains. High-priority healthcare-associated infection topics included judicious testing for Clostridioides difficile infection, chlorhexidine (CHG) bathing, measuring and preventing hospital-onset bloodstream infection rates, surgical site infection prevention, surveillance and prevention of multidrug resistant gram-negative rod infections. Antimicrobial stewardship topics included β-lactam allergy de-labeling, judicious use of perioperative antibiotics, intravenous to oral conversion of antimicrobial therapy, developing a patient-level “harm index” for antibiotic exposure, and benchmarking and or peer comparison of antibiotic use for common inpatient conditions.
We identified 6 healthcare-associated infection topics and 6 antimicrobial stewardship topics as potentially high-impact targets for pediatric research.
Background: Since 2015, the CDC has supported the development and implementation of healthcare-associated infection (HAI) surveillance in resource-limited settings through technical support of case definitions and methods that are feasible with existing surveillance capacity and integration with clinical care to maximize sustainability and data use for action. Methods: Surveillance initiatives included facility-level implementation programs in Kenya, Sierra Leone, Thailand, and Georgia; larger national or regional network-level projects in India and Vietnam were also supported. For assessment and planning, surveillance capacities were grouped into 3 domains: staff, informatics, and diagnostic capacities. Based on these capacities, simplified case definitions surveillance methodologies were devised to balance resources and effort with the anticipated value and use of findings. Results: There was broad understanding of the importance of HAI surveillance; however, the required resources and other challenges (eg, training, staffing, quality of available data) were underappreciated. Staff capacities were often influenced by a lack of dedicated surveillance staff and limited experience in systematic data collection and analysis. Informatics capacities were generally limited by the lack of digital data management, nonstandardized clinical data collection and storage, and the inability to assign and maintain unique patient identifiers. We found that capacity for diagnostics, a critical component of traditional HAI surveillance systems, was limited by its availability, frequency of use, and inconsistent rationale in clinical care. We found that successful surveillance strategies were generally simple, matched existing capacities, and targeted specific HAI priorities identified by clinical teams. For example, in Kenya and Sierra Leone, participating facilities established, with minimal external support, simplified SSI surveillance among post–caesarean-delivery patients. These initiatives improved integration of surveillance with clinical care through encouraging participation of the clinical team in surveillance and planning. Furthermore, these models directly linked surveillance activities to improved patient care (eg, combined clinical checklists with surveillance data collection forms). Discussion: In resource-limited settings, the local cost and effort required to establish and sustain the necessary infrastructure for HAI surveillance can be substantial. Establishing actionable and sustainable HAI surveillance can be achieved through simplifying HAI surveillance to match existing capacities and can result in valuable surveillance programs, even in very resource-limited settings.
Background: In low- and middle-income country (LMIC) healthcare facilities, gaps in infection prevention and control (IPC) practices increase risk of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and mortality among hospitalized neonates. Method: In this quasi-experimental study, we implemented the Comprehensive Unit-based Safety Program (CUSP) to improve adherence to evidence-based IPC practices in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in 4 tertiary-care facilities in Pune, India. CUSP is a validated strategy to empower staff to improve unit-level patient safety. Baseline safety culture was measured using the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPS). Baseline IPC assessments using the Infection Control Assessment Tool (ICAT) were completed to describe existing IPC practices to identify focus areas, the first of which was hand hygiene (HH). Sites received training in CUSP methodology and formed multidisciplinary CUSP teams, which met monthly and were supported by monthly coaching calls. Staff safety assessments (SSAs) guided selection of multimodal interventions. HH compliance was measured by direct observation using trained external observers. The primary outcome was HH compliance, evaluated monthly during the implementation and maintenance phases. Secondary outcomes included CUSP meeting frequency and HH compliance by healthcare worker (HCW) role. Result: In March 2018, 144 HCWs and administrators participated in CUSP training. Site meetings occurred monthly. During the implementation phase (June 2018–January 2019), HH monitoring commenced, sites formed their teams, completed the SSA, and selected interventions to improve HH based on the WHO’s IPC multimodal improvement strategy: (1) system change; (2) training and education; (3) monitoring and feedback; (4) reminders and communication; and (5) a culture of safety (Fig. 1). During the maintenance phase (February–September 2019), HH was monitored monthly and sites adapted interventions as needed. HH compliance improved from 58% to 70% at participant sites from implementation to maintenance phases (Fig. 2), with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.66 (95% CI, 1.50–1.84; P < .001). HH compliance improved across all HCW roles: (1) physician compliance improved from 55% to 67% (OR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.42–2.01; P < .001); (2) nurse compliance from 61% to 73% (OR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.46–1.93; P < .001); and (3) other HCW compliance from 52% to 62% (OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.10–1.99; P = .010). Conclusion: CUSP was successfully adapted by 4 diverse tertiary-care NICUs in Pune, India, and it resulted in increased HH compliance at all sites. This multimodal strategy is a promising framework for LMIC healthcare facilities to sustainably address IPC gaps and reduce HAI and mortality in neonates.
Background: Surgical site infections (SSIs) are among the most common healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). SSI surveillance can be challenging and resource-intensive to implement in LMICs. To support feasible LMIC SSI surveillance, we piloted a multisite SSI surveillance protocol using simplified case definitions and methodology in Sierra Leone. Methods: A standardized evaluation tool was used to assess SSI surveillance knowledge, capacity, and attitudes at 5 proposed facilities. We used simplified case definitions restricted to objective, observable criteria (eg, wound purulence or intentional reopening) without considering the depth of infection. Surveillance was limited to post-cesarean delivery patients to control variability of patient-level infection risk and to decrease data collection requirements. Phone-based patient interviews at 30-days facilitated postdischarge case finding. Surveillance activities utilized existing clinical staff without monetary incentives. The Ministry of Health provided training and support for data management and analysis. Results: Three facilities were selected for initial implementation. At all facilities, administration and surgical staff described most, or all, infections as “preventable” and all considered SSIs an “important problem” at their facility. However, capacity assessments revealed limited staff availability to support surveillance activities, limited experience in systematic data collection, nonstandardized patient records as the basis for data collection, lack of unique and consistent patient identifiers to link patient encounters, and no quality-assured microbiology services. To limit system demands and to maximize usefulness, our surveillance data collection elements were built into a newly developed clinical surgical safety checklist that was designed to support surgeons’ clinical decision making. Following implementation and 2 months of SSI surveillance activities, 77% (392 of 509) of post-cesarean delivery patients had a checklist completed within the surveillance system. Only 145 of 392 patients (37%) under surveillance were contacted for final 30-day phone interview. Combined SSI rate for the initial 2-months of data collection in Sierra Leone was 8% (32 of 392) with 31% (10 of 32) identified through postdischarge case finding. Discussion: The surveillance strategy piloted in Sierra Leone represents a departure from established HAI strategies in the use of simplified case definitions and implementation methods that prioritize current feasibility in a resource-limited setting. However, our pilot implementation results suggest that even these simplified SSI surveillance methods may lack sustainability without additional resources, especially in postdischarge case finding. However, even limited phone-based patient interviews identified a substantial number of infections in this population. Although it was not addressed in this pilot study, feasible laboratory capacity building to support HAI surveillance efforts and promote appropriate treatment should be explored.
Background: Chlorhexidine bathing reduces bacterial skin colonization and prevents infections in specific patient populations. As chlorhexidine use becomes more widespread, concerns about bacterial tolerance to chlorhexidine have increased; however, testing for chlorhexidine minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) is challenging. We adapted a broth microdilution (BMD) method to determine whether chlorhexidine MICs changed over time among 4 important healthcare-associated pathogens. Methods: Antibiotic-resistant bacterial isolates (Staphylococcus aureus from 2005 to 2019 and Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterobacter cloacae complex from 2011 to 2019) were collected through Emerging Infections Program surveillance in 2 sites (Georgia and Tennessee) or through public health reporting in 1 site (Orange County, California). A convenience sample of isolates were collected from facilities with varying amounts of chlorhexidine use. We performed BMD testing using laboratory-developed panels with chlorhexidine digluconate concentrations ranging from 0.125 to 64 μg/mL. After successfully establishing reproducibility with quality control organisms, 3 laboratories performed MIC testing. For each organism, epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) were established using ECOFFinder. Results: Among 538 isolates tested (129 S. aureus, 158 E. coli, 142 K. pneumoniae, and 109 E. cloacae complex), S. aureus, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and E. cloacae complex ECVs were 8, 4, 64, and 64 µg/mL, respectively (Table 1). Moreover, 14 isolates had an MIC above the ECV (12 E. coli and 2 E. cloacae complex). The MIC50 of each species is reported over time (Table 2). Conclusions: Using an adapted BMD method, we found that chlorhexidine MICs did not increase over time among a limited sample of S. aureus, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and E. cloacae complex isolates. Although these results are reassuring, continued surveillance for elevated chlorhexidine MICs in isolates from patients with well-characterized chlorhexidine exposure is needed as chlorhexidine use increases.
Increasingly, students with intellectual disabilities (ID) in the United States are overcoming historical barriers to accessing traditionally exclusionary higher education. These gains undoubtedly represent a hard-fought victory for the broader disability rights movement. However, this advance has not come through enforcing the civil rights and non-discrimination statutes that generated disability rights victories in other areas or the disability-specific education laws that promoted access to primary and secondary schooling. Instead, many students with ID are accessing higher education opportunities through specialised programmes, often styled as ‘inclusive’ despite their segregated nature. Such programmes present new arenas for familiar forms of disability-based discrimination to once more manifest — such as suspect admissions criteria, second-class status and biased disciplinary procedures. Thus, despite the proliferation of inclusive post-secondary programmes, there remains an urgent social need to address barriers to full and effective participation in higher education that students with ID continue to face when navigating university and college campuses.
We examined the measurement and mediating role of social support in dietary intake among participants in Texercise Select, an intervention for improving lifestyle behaviours.
Quasi-experimental study. Participants reported their dietary intake, level of social support measured by the new Social Support for Healthy Eating scale, sociodemographics and disease profile. We conducted exploratory factor analysis for scale evaluation and structural equation modelling for mediation analysis to test if changes in dietary-specific social support mediate the relationship between the intervention and changes in dietary intake.
Community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults completed a self-reported survey at baseline and 3-month follow-up (intervention group n 211, comparison group n 175).
The majority of the sample was aged ≥70 years (mean 74·30, sd 8·54), female (82·1 %) and had at least two chronic conditions (63·5 %). The acceptable levels of reliability and validity of the dietary-specific social support scale were confirmed. Compared with the comparison group, the intervention group reported improved intake of fruit/vegetables and water, and improved dietary-specific social support. Improved dietary-specific social support mediated the association between intervention and change in fruit/vegetable intake, controlling for sociodemographics, number of chronic conditions and geographic residence. About 12 % of intervention effect was mediated by social support.
The current study confirms positive intervention effects on healthy eating, and highlights social support relating to dietary behaviours that may be helpful for healthy eating. Future research should investigate additional social support for developing healthy eating behavioural skills.
Schizophrenia is a highly heritable disorder with undetermined neurobiological causes. Understanding the impact on brain anatomy of carrying genetic risk for the disorder will contribute to uncovering its neurobiological underpinnings.
To examine the effect of rare copy number variants (CNVs) associated with schizophrenia on brain cortical anatomy in a sample of unaffected participants from the UK Biobank.
We used regression analyses to compare cortical thickness and surface area (total and across gyri) between 120 unaffected carriers of rare CNVs associated with schizophrenia and 16 670 participants without any pathogenic CNV. A measure of cortical thickness and surface area covariance across gyri was also compared between groups.
Carrier status was associated with reduced surface area (β = −0.020 mm2, P < 0.001) and less robustly with increased cortical thickness (β = 0.015 mm, P = 0.035), and with increased covariance in thickness (carriers z = 0.31 v. non-carriers z = 0.22, P < 0.0005). Associations were mainly present in frontal and parietal areas and driven by a limited number of rare risk alleles included in our analyses (mainly 15q11.2 deletion for surface area and 16p13.11 duplication for thickness covariance).
Results for surface area conformed with previous clinical findings, supporting surface area reductions as an indicator of genetic liability for schizophrenia. Results for cortical thickness, though, argued against its validity as a potential risk marker. Increased structural thickness covariance across gyri also appears related to risk for schizophrenia. The heterogeneity found across the effects of rare risk alleles suggests potential different neurobiological gateways into schizophrenia's phenotype.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Initiation of JUUL use by young adults is one of the most significant issues of concern within the debate on vaping. Despite the proliferation of products and the surge in prevalence, no studies have investigated individual-level interventions or prevention strategies for pod-mod use. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Participants (N = 947) were young adults (<30 years old) recruited from Amazon’s Mechanical Turk based on smoking (never, former, and current smokers) and JUUL use status (never and current users), resulting in 6 use groups. In a pre-post design, participants completed baseline assessments, were presented with a brief JUUL-specific educational intervention, and completed post-assessment measures. The one-page intervention provided basic information about JUUL and stated that JUUL is harmful to non-smokers but could be beneficial to smokers if they completely switch. Primary outcomes were changes in JUUL knowledge, perceived harmfulness, intentions for future use, and motivation to change. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Participants (Mage = 26.1) were male (57%) and White (75%). Overall, the intervention increased JUUL-related knowledge, risk perceptions, commitment to quitting, and readiness to quit JUUL (ps<.01). Similarly, participants showed decreased interest in future JUUL use, interest in purchasing JUUL, and interest in future regular use (ps<.01). Non-JUUL users showed decreased interest in initiating JUUL use after viewing the intervention (p<.01). There were significant Time X Group interactions for JUUL-related knowledge (p<.001), with never JUUL/never smokers showing the greatest increase in product knowledge following the intervention. However, no other interaction effects were significant. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The intervention was effective in increasing knowledge and risk perceptions while reducing intentions for future use. The intervention was most effective in increasing knowledge among non-users, suggesting that brief educational interventions may be useful tools for preventing pod-mod initiation. CONFLICT OF INTEREST DESCRIPTION: Dr. Carpenter has received consulting honoraria from Pfizer. All other authors have no conflicts to disclose.
Mood instability and sleep disturbance are common symptoms in people with mental illness. Both features are clinically important and associated with poorer illness trajectories. We compared clinical outcomes in people presenting to secondary mental health care with mood instability and/or sleep disturbance with outcomes in people without either mood instability or sleep disturbance.
Data were from electronic health records of 31,391 patients ages 16–65 years presenting to secondary mental health services between 2008 and 2016. Mood instability and sleep disturbance were identified using natural language processing. Prevalence of mood instability and sleep disturbance were estimated at baseline. Incidence rate ratios were estimates for clinical outcomes including psychiatric diagnoses, prescribed medication, and hospitalization within 2-years of presentation in persons with mood instability and/or sleep disturbance compared to individuals without either symptom.
Mood instability was present in 9.58%, and sleep disturbance in 26.26% of patients within 1-month of presenting to secondary mental health services. Compared with individuals without either symptom, those with mood instability and sleep disturbance showed significantly increased incidence of prescription of any psychotropic medication (incidence rate ratios [IRR] = 7.04, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 6.53–7.59), and hospitalization (IRR = 5.32, 95% CI 5.32, 4.67–6.07) within 2-years of presentation. Incidence rates of most clinical outcomes were considerably increased among persons with both mood instability and sleep disturbance, relative to persons with only one symptom.
Mood instability and sleep disturbance are present in a wide range of mental disorders, beyond those in which they are conventionally considered to be symptoms. They are associated with poor outcomes, particularly when they occur together. The poor prognosis associated with mood instability and sleep disorder may be, in part, because they are often treated as secondary symptoms. Mood instability and sleep disturbance need better recognition as clinical targets for treatment in their own right.
Long perceived as sexually aberrant, persons with disabilities have made headway in recent years breaking down societal and attitudinal barriers that exclude many from leading sexually active lives. This progress has been uneven, often depending on a person’s type of disability. For example, evolving societal attitudes support the equal right of persons with physical disabilities to sexual intimacy, even if the means by which to fulfill this right (e.g., accessible social clubs) remain elusive. By contrast, persons with intellectual disabilities seeking volitional sex still face multitudinous attitudinal barriers.
We describe an ultra-wide-bandwidth, low-frequency receiver recently installed on the Parkes radio telescope. The receiver system provides continuous frequency coverage from 704 to 4032 MHz. For much of the band (
), the system temperature is approximately 22 K and the receiver system remains in a linear regime even in the presence of strong mobile phone transmissions. We discuss the scientific and technical aspects of the new receiver, including its astronomical objectives, as well as the feed, receiver, digitiser, and signal processor design. We describe the pipeline routines that form the archive-ready data products and how those data files can be accessed from the archives. The system performance is quantified, including the system noise and linearity, beam shape, antenna efficiency, polarisation calibration, and timing stability.
Surgical site infections (SSIs) are among the most common healthcare-associated infections in low- and middle-income countries. To encourage establishment of actionable and standardized SSI surveillance in these countries, we propose simplified surveillance case definitions. Here, we use NHSN reports to explore concordance of these simplified definitions to NHSN as ‘reference standard.’
UK Biobank is a well-characterised cohort of over 500 000 participants including genetics, environmental data and imaging. An online mental health questionnaire was designed for UK Biobank participants to expand its potential.
Describe the development, implementation and results of this questionnaire.
An expert working group designed the questionnaire, using established measures where possible, and consulting a patient group. Operational criteria were agreed for defining likely disorder and risk states, including lifetime depression, mania/hypomania, generalised anxiety disorder, unusual experiences and self-harm, and current post-traumatic stress and hazardous/harmful alcohol use.
A total of 157 366 completed online questionnaires were available by August 2017. Participants were aged 45–82 (53% were ≥65 years) and 57% women. Comparison of self-reported diagnosed mental disorder with a contemporary study shows a similar prevalence, despite respondents being of higher average socioeconomic status. Lifetime depression was a common finding, with 24% (37 434) of participants meeting criteria and current hazardous/harmful alcohol use criteria were met by 21% (32 602), whereas other criteria were met by less than 8% of the participants. There was extensive comorbidity among the syndromes. Mental disorders were associated with a high neuroticism score, adverse life events and long-term illness; addiction and bipolar affective disorder in particular were associated with measures of deprivation.
The UK Biobank questionnaire represents a very large mental health survey in itself, and the results presented here show high face validity, although caution is needed because of selection bias. Built into UK Biobank, these data intersect with other health data to offer unparalleled potential for crosscutting biomedical research involving mental health.
Childhood abuse is a risk factor for poorer illness course in bipolar disorder, but the reasons why are unclear. Trait-like features such as affective instability and impulsivity could be part of the explanation. We aimed to examine whether childhood abuse was associated with clinical features of bipolar disorder, and whether associations were mediated by affective instability or impulsivity.
We analysed data from 923 people with bipolar I disorder recruited by the Bipolar Disorder Research Network. Adjusted associations between childhood abuse, affective instability and impulsivity and eight clinical variables were analysed. A path analysis examined the direct and indirect links between childhood abuse and clinical features with affective instability and impulsivity as mediators.
Affective instability significantly mediated the association between childhood abuse and earlier age of onset [effect estimate (θ)/standard error (SE): 2.49], number of depressive (θ/SE: 2.08) and manic episodes/illness year (θ/SE: 1.32), anxiety disorders (θ/SE: 1.98) and rapid cycling (θ/SE: 2.25). Impulsivity significantly mediated the association between childhood abuse and manic episodes/illness year (θ/SE: 1.79), anxiety disorders (θ/SE: 1.59), rapid cycling (θ/SE: 1.809), suicidal behaviour (θ/SE: 2.12) and substance misuse (θ/SE: 3.09). Measures of path analysis fit indicated an excellent fit to the data.
Affective instability and impulsivity are likely part of the mechanism of why childhood abuse increases risk of poorer clinical course in bipolar disorder, with each showing some selectivity in pathways. They are potential novel targets for intervention to improve outcome in bipolar disorder.