This paper documents the glaciological structures associated with the surge of Skeiðarárjökull, Iceland, in 1991. These structures are interpreted as units of stratified ice, low-angle fractures, vertical and sub-vertical fractures (crevasse traces) and thrusts. The inferred thrusts are debris-rich and, unusually, have both down-glacier and up-glacier dips close to the ice margin. Sediment infills consist of either massive sand or horizontally stratified sand units. The most significant debris-rich structures on the glacier surface, however, are supraglacial crevasse and conduit fills, which contain either massive or horizontally stratified silts, sands and granule-gravels. These sediments infill both vertical fractures (relict crevasses) and englacial conduits. At the stratigraphic base of these sediment fills there is evidence of syn-sedimentary deformation, suggesting that sedimentation occurred during crevasse closure and continued thereafter. We argue that these structures relate to an episode of supraglacial meltwater flow during the 1991 surge, caused by the build-up of subglacial water pressure in a linked-cavity system or some similar distributed drainage system beneath the glacier. The development of this high-level drainage route may have helped regulate basal water pressures and therefore the active phase of the surge. The idea that the supraglacial leakage of subglacial water may have played a role in terminating the surge is explored.