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We propose the concept of the “Fish Revolution” to demarcate the dramatic increase in North Atlantic fisheries after AD 1500, which led to a 15-fold increase of cod (Gadus morhua) catch volumes and likely a tripling of fish protein to the European market. We consider three key questions: (1) What were the environmental parameters of the Fish Revolution? (2) What were the globalising effects of the Fish Revolution? (3) What were the consequences of the Fish Revolution for fishing communities? While these questions would have been considered unknowable a decade or two ago, methodological developments in marine environmental history and historical ecology have moved information about both supply and demand into the realm of the discernible. Although much research remains to be done, we conclude that this was a major event in the history of resource extraction from the sea, mediated by forces of climate change and globalisation, and is likely to provide a fruitful agenda for future multidisciplinary research.
Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the integration of cover crops and POST herbicides to control glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth in cotton. The winter-annual grasses accumulated the greatest amount of biomass and provided the most Palmer amaranth control. The estimates for the logistic regression would indicate that 1540 kg ha−1 would delay Palmer amaranth emerging and growing to 10 cm by an estimated 16.5 days. The Palmer amaranth that emerged in the cereal rye and wheat cover crop treatments took a longer time to reach 10 cm compared to the hairy vetch and crimson clover treatments. POST herbicides were needed for adequate control of Palmer amaranth. The glufosinate-based weed control system provided greater control (75% vs 31%) of Palmer amaranth than did the glyphosate system. These results indicate that a POST only herbicide weed management system did not provide sufficient control of Palmer amaranth, even when used in conjunction with cover crops that produced a moderate level of biomass. Therefore, future recommendations for GR Palmer amaranth control will include integrating cover crops with PRE herbicides, overlaying residual herbicides in-season, timely POST herbicide applications, and hand weeding in order to achieve season-long control of this pest.
For the last few years, I have been working on an extensive digital model of ancient Rome as it appeared in the early 4th Century AD. This sort of visualisation lends itself to many applications in diverse fields: I am currently using it for research work into illumination and sightlines in the ancient city, have licensed it for broadcast in TV documentaries and publication in magazines, and am working with a computer games studio to turn it into an online game where players will be able to walk round the streets and buildings of the entire city (when not engaged in trading with or assassinating one another). Later this year I will be making a free online course, or MOOC, about the architecture of ancient Rome, which will largely be illustrated by this model.
The relative contribution of demographic, lifestyle and medication factors to the association between affective disorders and cardiometabolic diseases is poorly understood.
To assess the relationship between cardiometabolic disease and features of depresion and bipolar disorder within a large population sample.
Cross-sectional study of 145 991 UK Biobank participants: multivariate analyses of associations between features of depression or bipolar disorder and five cardiometabolic outcomes, adjusting for confounding factors.
There were significant associations between mood disorder features and ‘any cardiovascular disease’ (depression odds ratio (OR) = 1.15, 95% CI 1.12–1.19; bipolar OR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.14–1.43) and with hypertension (depression OR = 1.15, 95% CI 1.13–1.18; bipolar OR = 1.26, 95% CI 1.12–1.42). Individuals with features of mood disorder taking psychotropic medication were significantly more likely than controls not on psychotropics to report myocardial infarction (depression OR = 1.47, 95% CI 1.24–1.73; bipolar OR = 2.23, 95% CI 1.53–3.57) and stroke (depression OR = 2.46, 95% CI 2.10–2.80; bipolar OR = 2.31, 95% CI 1.39–3.85).
Associations between features of depression or bipolar disorder and cardiovascular disease outcomes were statistically independent of demographic, lifestyle and medication confounders. Psychotropic medication may also be a risk factor for cardiometabolic disease in individuals without a clear history of mood disorder.
A case-control study was conducted to determine risk factors for hospital-onset Clostridium difficile infection among patients admitted to 2 surgical units. Ertapenem prophylaxis was significantly associated with C. difficile infection risk (odds ratio, 3.13 [95% CI, 1.13–8.68], P=.028) and may offer an antimicrobial stewardship target among surgical patients.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;36(11):1351–1354
Tall fescue is a commonly used turfgrass in the temperate and transition zone areas of the United States. During hot, humid summers, tall fescue is under stress and is susceptible to Rhizoctonia solani (brown patch) infection, causing turf thinning, leading to encroachment from weeds, such as bermudagrass. Field trials were established to evaluate the effect of mowing height and fertility programs on disease severity and bermudagrass encroachment in tall fescue. Mowing at 10 cm resulted in less bermudagrass encroachment than did a 6-cm mowing height. Increasing the nitrogen fertilization level from 49 to 171 and 220 kg N ha−1 generally led to more bermudagrass encroachment at the 6-cm, but not the 10-cm, mowing height. Plots receiving 220 kg N ha−1 annually at the 6-cm mowing height had the most brown patch. Turfgrass cover was greatest in plots mowed at 10 cm and receiving 220 kg N ha−1 annually.
This chapter discusses the diagnosis, evaluation and management of aortic dissection. In addition to chest pain, patients may present with focal neurological deficits secondary to the physical obstruction of either one of the carotid arteries by an intimal flap, or false lumen propagation. Vascular obstruction and ischemia may occur at any level, leading to syncope, stroke symptoms, acute myocardial infarction (frequently from right coronary artery compromise), mesenteric ischemia, paraplegia (from hypoperfusion of the spinal arteries), or limb ischemia. Cardiogenic shock may also arise as a complication of dissection into the pericardium resulting in cardiac tamponade. Beck's triad of hypotension, muffled heart sounds, and jugular venous distension can sometimes be found. Electrocardiogram (ECG) findings rarely aid in the diagnosis, though ST elevations may be present in as many as 20% of patients due to ostial coronary involvement.
This article examines the implications of Galen's newly-rediscovered Peri Alupias (On Consolation from Grief) for our understanding of the function and contents of public libraries in late second-century a.d. Rome. As a leading intellectual figure at Rome, Galen's detailed testimony substantially increases what we know of imperial public libraries in the city. In particular, the article considers Galen's description of his use of the Palatine libraries and a nearby storage warehouse, his testimony on the contents, organization, and cataloguing of the books he found there, and his use of provincial public libraries for the dissemination of his own works.
Methods for extracting or harvesting energy from the surrounding battlefield environment are of great importance to the United States Army. Scavenging energy from local environments reduces the required energy and weight transported to the theater. Micro- and nano-scale metal-insulator-metal (MIM) tunnel diodes are being developed to provide half-wave rectification as part of a “rectenna” energy harvesting system, which includes a radiation-collecting antenna, a rectifying MIM tunnel diode, and a storage capacitor. In this work, high-frequency MIM tunnel diodes for power rectification were designed, fabricated and characterized. Planar Pt/TiO2/Ti stacks are being fabricated to create a diode with highly asymmetric I-V characteristics that has a very low threshold voltage. The metals were chosen for their high work function difference, and the insulator was chosen for its barrier height, its compatibility with Ti, and its availability. The energy band diagram and the I-V characteristics were modeled to determine the feasibility of the Pt/TiO2/Ti material system for use as a rectifier diode in a rectenna system. Metals and insulator thin films were deposited onto silicon dioxide/silicon substrates. Pillars with lateral dimensions ranging from 20 μm x 20 μm up to 100 μm x 100 μm were fabricated. The dielectric thickness of the MIM diode was varied from 5 nm up to 50 nm to determine the optimal thickness for quantum tunneling. I-V measurements were taken using an electrical characterization system to confirm a non-linear, asymmetric response on a survey of devices fabricated with varying areas. Preliminary results exhibit asymmetric I-V characteristics with threshold voltages of less than 700 mV.
The Περὶ Ἀλυπίας (‘On Consolation From Grief’, henceforward PA) of Galen, recently rediscovered in a fifteenth-century manuscript in a monastery in Thessalonica, contains a wealth of information for the scholar of Roman libraries and books. The work, a treatise on the avoidance of the grief contingent upon loss and suffering, begins by listing the losses suffered by Galen himself in the fire of AD 192. The fire destroyed the Templum Pacis, a series of warehouses and storerooms, and the libraries on the Palatine hill. As Galen had spent much effort copying books from these libraries, and had then deposited his copies in the warehouses that also burned, his work was lost beyond the possibility of recovery.