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Hypoplastic left heart syndrome is the most expensive birth defect managed in the United States, with a 5-year survival rate below 70%. Increasing evidence suggests that hospital volumes are inversely associated with mortality for infants with single ventricles undergoing stage 1 surgical palliation. Our aim was to examine the relative effects of surgeon and institutional volumes on outcomes and resource utilisation for these children.
A retrospective study was conducted using the Pediatric Health Information System database to examine the effects of the number of procedures performed per surgeon and per centre on mortality, costs, and post-operative length of stay for infants undergoing Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery risk category six operations at tertiary-care paediatric hospitals, from 1 January, 2004 to 31 December, 2013. Multivariable modelling was used, adjusting for patient and institutional characteristics. Gaussian kernel densities were constructed to show the relative distributions of the effects of individual institutions and surgeons, before and after adjusting for the number of cases performed.
A total of 2880 infants from 35 institutions met the inclusion criteria. Mortality was 15.0%. Median post-operative length of stay was 24 days (IQR 14–41). Median standardized inpatient hospital costs were $156,000 (IQR $108,000–$248,000) in 2013 dollars. In the multivariable analyses, higher institutional volume was inversely associated with mortality (p=0.001), post-operative length of stay (p=0.004), and costs (p=0.001). Surgeon volume was associated with none of the measured outcomes. Neither institutional nor surgeon volumes explained much of the wide variation in outcomes and resource utilization observed between institutions and between surgeons.
Increased institutional – but not surgeon – volumes are associated with reduced mortality, post-operative length of stay, and costs for infants undergoing stage 1 palliation.
We conducted a retrospective cohort study to examine the role played by length of hospital stay in the risk of healthcare-associated bloodstream infection (BSI), independent of demographic and clinical risk factors for BSI.
We employed data from 113,893 admissions from inpatients discharged between 2006 and 2008.
Large tertiary healthcare center in New York City.
We estimated the crude and adjusted hazard of BSI by conducting logistic regression using a person-day data structure. The covariates included in the fully adjusted model included age, sex, Charlson score of comorbidity, renal failure, and malignancy as static variables and central venous catheterization, mechanical ventilation, and intensive care unit stay as time-varying variables.
In the crude model, we observed a nonlinear increasing hazard of BSI with increasing hospital stay. This trend was reduced to a constant hazard when fully adjusted for demographic and clinical risk factors for BSI.
The association between longer length of hospital stay and increased risk of infection can largely be explained by the increased duration of stay among those who have underlying morbidity and require invasive procedures. We should take caution in attributing the association between length of stay and BSI to a direct negative impact of the healthcare environment.
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