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Distinguished by a marked combination of high strength and high fracture toughness, 18Ni-300 maraging steel (MS) is widely used for intricate tool and die applications. MS is also amenable to the powder bed fusion additive manufacturing process, providing unique opportunities to make small features and incorporate cooling channels in molds. In this study, tensile test samples were fabricated using selective laser melting to investigate the effects of built height and orientations on the evolution of the microstructure and the mechanical properties of the samples. The microstructure of the as-fabricated samples consists of the primary α-martensite phase and fine cellular microstructure (~0.66–0.83 μm) with the retained austenite γ-phase aggregated at the boundaries of the cells, resulting in an enhanced mechanical performance compared with traditional counterparts under the same condition (without post-heat treatments). Random grain orientations with weak textures are revealed in all samples. The XY-built samples display better tensile performance when compared to the Z-built samples due to the fine grain sizes and the retained γ phase. The bottom of the Z-built sample exhibits a higher hardness than other parts of the sample, which could be attributed to its finer cellular structure.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Little is known about the effect of hemodilution with crystalloid on blood coagulation in obstetric patients. The purpose of our study was to examine the impact of hemodilution on components of blood coagulation using rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM®) in term parturients METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: This is a prospective, observational pilot study including 35 healthy, pregnant patients at term (≥37 weeks) without history of bleeding or clotting disorder or on medication affecting coagulation. Venous blood samples were collected from all patients and divided into specimen tubes to generate varying degrees of hemodilution with Plasma-Lyte (0%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, 40%, 45%, 55%, 60%, 65%, 70%, 75%, 80%). Rotational thromboelastometry was then performed on samples to assess for coagulation changes. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: EXTEM (extrinsically activated assay) clotting time (CT) became prolonged at 65% hemodilution and above, and the median CT was in the coagulopathic range (>80 seconds) at a dilution of 80%. FIBTEM (extrinsically activated assay with platelet inhibitor, primarily measuring contribution of fibrinogen to coagulation) amplitude at 5 minutes (A5) began to diminish at 35% hemodilution, with the median A5 in the coagulopathic range (<12 mm) at 55% hemodilution. The area under the curve (AUC), a marker of clot strength, for EXTEM and FIBTEM consistently declined as hemodilution increased. Greater decreases in FIBTEM AUC were seen compared to EXTEM AUC, with the ratio of FIBTEM:EXTEM AUC at each dilution demonstrating a statistically significant difference from baseline. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: All thromboelastometry values demonstrated a hypocoagulable trend as hemodilution increased. However, the samples analyzed by the FIBTEM assay trended toward a coagulopathy at a lower degree of hemodilution compared to the EXTEM assay. As FIBTEM tests analyze the role of fibrinogen in hemostasis and EXTEM tests analyze the role of platelets, our findings suggest that platelets may be able to withstand higher degrees of hemodilution before impairing hemostasis compared to fibrinogen. These findings support the growing body of literature that in early stages of severe obstetric hemorrhage, the prioritization of fibrinogen replacement may be critical in preventing further coagulopathy. CONFLICT OF INTEREST DESCRIPTION: All authors have no conflicts of interest to report.
Neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio has been associated with clinical outcomes in several groups of cardiac patients, including patients with coronary artery disease, cardiac failure, and cardiac transplant recipients. We hypothesised that pre- and/or post-operative haematological cell counts are associated with clinical outcomes in children undergoing cardiac surgery for CHD. We performed a post hoc analysis of data collected as part of a prospective observational cohort study (n = 83, data available n = 47) of children evaluated for glucocorticoid receptor levels after cardiac surgery (July 2015–January 2016). The association of neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio with low cardiac output syndrome, time to inotrope free, and vasoactive-inotropic score was examined using proportional odds analysis, cox regression, and linear regression models, respectively. A majority (80%) of patients were infants (median/interquartile range 4.1/0.2–7.6 months) with conotruncal (36%) and left-sided obstructed lesions (28%). Two patients required mechanical circulatory support and three died. Higher pre-operative neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio was associated with higher cumulative odds of severe/moderate versus mild low cardiac output on post-operative day 1 (odds ratio 2.86; 95% confidence interval 1.18–6.93; p = 0.02). Pre-operative neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio was not significantly associated with time to inotrope free or vasoactive-inotrope score. Post-operative neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio was also not associated with outcomes. In children after congenital heart surgery, higher pre-operative neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio was associated with a higher chance of low cardiac output in the early post-operative period. Pre-operative neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio maybe a useful prognostic marker in children undergoing congenital heart surgery.
Ebstein anomaly is a rare congenital heart defect (CHD) that, when severe, requires corrective surgery or other catheter-based intervention in the first year of life. Due to its rarity, risk factors for Ebstein anomaly remain largely unknown. Using national data, we examined 18 potential risk factors for Ebstein anomaly.
Using 1997–2011 data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a population-based case–control study, we calculated crude and adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for paternal age, maternal socio-demographics, reproductive history, and modifiable risk factors, and infant characteristics reported by mothers of 135 Ebstein anomaly cases and 11,829 controls.
Mothers of Ebstein anomaly cases had 4.1 (95% confidence interval: 1.8, 9.5) times the odds of reporting a family history of CHD compared with mothers of controls. Ebstein anomaly was associated with maternal second-hand cigarette smoke exposure at home (odds ratio = 2.2 [95% confidence interval: 1.1, 4.4]), but not maternal cigarette smoking (odds ratio = 1.3 [95% confidence interval: 0.8, 2.1]). Odds were elevated, but the 95% confidence interval included 1.0, for maternal marijuana use (odds ratio = 1.8 [95% confidence interval: 0.9, 3.8]) and paternal age ≥40 years at delivery (odds ratio = 1.9 [95% confidence interval: 1.0, 3.5]).
Maternal exposure to second-hand cigarette smoke at home and a family history of CHD were associated with elevated odds of Ebstein anomaly. Genetic analyses could clarify the potential heritability of Ebstein anomaly.
Different diagnostic interviews are used as reference standards for major depression classification in research. Semi-structured interviews involve clinical judgement, whereas fully structured interviews are completely scripted. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), a brief fully structured interview, is also sometimes used. It is not known whether interview method is associated with probability of major depression classification.
To evaluate the association between interview method and odds of major depression classification, controlling for depressive symptom scores and participant characteristics.
Data collected for an individual participant data meta-analysis of Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) diagnostic accuracy were analysed and binomial generalised linear mixed models were fit.
A total of 17 158 participants (2287 with major depression) from 57 primary studies were analysed. Among fully structured interviews, odds of major depression were higher for the MINI compared with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) (odds ratio (OR) = 2.10; 95% CI = 1.15–3.87). Compared with semi-structured interviews, fully structured interviews (MINI excluded) were non-significantly more likely to classify participants with low-level depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≤6) as having major depression (OR = 3.13; 95% CI = 0.98–10.00), similarly likely for moderate-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores 7–15) (OR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.56–1.66) and significantly less likely for high-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≥16) (OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.26–0.97).
The MINI may identify more people as depressed than the CIDI, and semi-structured and fully structured interviews may not be interchangeable methods, but these results should be replicated.
Declaration of interest
Drs Jetté and Patten declare that they received a grant, outside the submitted work, from the Hotchkiss Brain Institute, which was jointly funded by the Institute and Pfizer. Pfizer was the original sponsor of the development of the PHQ-9, which is now in the public domain. Dr Chan is a steering committee member or consultant of Astra Zeneca, Bayer, Lilly, MSD and Pfizer. She has received sponsorships and honorarium for giving lectures and providing consultancy and her affiliated institution has received research grants from these companies. Dr Hegerl declares that within the past 3 years, he was an advisory board member for Lundbeck, Servier and Otsuka Pharma; a consultant for Bayer Pharma; and a speaker for Medice Arzneimittel, Novartis, and Roche Pharma, all outside the submitted work. Dr Inagaki declares that he has received grants from Novartis Pharma, lecture fees from Pfizer, Mochida, Shionogi, Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma, Daiichi-Sankyo, Meiji Seika and Takeda, and royalties from Nippon Hyoron Sha, Nanzando, Seiwa Shoten, Igaku-shoin and Technomics, all outside of the submitted work. Dr Yamada reports personal fees from Meiji Seika Pharma Co., Ltd., MSD K.K., Asahi Kasei Pharma Corporation, Seishin Shobo, Seiwa Shoten Co., Ltd., Igaku-shoin Ltd., Chugai Igakusha and Sentan Igakusha, all outside the submitted work. All other authors declare no competing interests. No funder had any role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis and interpretation of the data; preparation, review or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy has a range of clinical severity in children. Treatment options are limited, mainly on account of small patient size. Disopyramide is a sodium channel blocker with negative inotropic properties that effectively reduces left ventricular outflow tract gradients in adults with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, but its efficacy in children is uncertain. A retrospective chart review of patients ⩽21 years of age with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy at our institution and treated with disopyramide was performed. Left ventricular outflow tract Doppler gradients before and after disopyramide initiation were compared as the primary outcome measure. Nine patients received disopyramide, with a median age of 5.6 years (range 6 days–12.9 years). The median left ventricular outflow tract Doppler gradient before initiation of disopyramide was 81 mmHg (range 30–132 mmHg); eight patients had post-initiation echocardiograms, in which the median lowest recorded Doppler gradient was 43 mmHg (range 15–100 mmHg), for a median % reduction of 58.2% (p=0.002). With median follow-up of 2.5 years, eight of nine patients were still alive, although disopyramide had been discontinued in six of the nine patients. Reasons for discontinuation included septal myomectomy (four patients), heart transplantation (one patient), and side effects (one patient). Disopyramide was effective for the relief of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction in children with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, although longer-term data suggest that its efficacy is not sustained. In general, it was well tolerated. Further study in larger patient populations is warranted.
We present an indentation-scope that interfaces with confocal microscopy, enabling direct observation of the three-dimensional (3D) microstructural response of coatings on substrates. Using this method, we compared microns-thick polymer coatings on glass with and without silica nanoparticle filler. Bulk force data confirmed the >30% modulus difference, while microstructural data further revealed slip at the glass-coating interface. Filled coatings slipped more and about two times faster, as reflected in 3D displacement and von Mises strain fields. Overall, these data indicate that silica-doping of coatings can dramatically alter adhesion. Moreover, this method compliments existing theoretical and modeling approaches for studying indentation in layered systems.
Alnico alloys have long been used as strong permanent magnets because of their ferromagnetism and high coercivity. Understanding their structural details allows for better prediction of the resulting magnetic properties. However, quantitative three-dimensional characterization of the phase separation in these alloys is still challenged by the spatial quantification of nanoscale phases. Herein, we apply a dual tomography approach, where correlative scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopic (EDS) tomography and atom probe tomography (APT) are used to investigate the initial phase separation process of an alnico 8 alloy upon non-magnetic annealing. STEM-EDS tomography provides information on the morphology and volume fractions of Fe–Co-rich and Νi–Al-rich phases after spinodal decomposition in addition to quantitative information of the composition of a nanoscale volume. Subsequent analysis of a portion of the same specimen by APT offers quantitative chemical information of each phase at the sub-nanometer scale. Furthermore, APT reveals small, 2–4 nm Fe-rich α1 phases that are nucleated in the Ni-rich α2 matrix. From this information, we show that phase separation of the alnico 8 alloy consists of both spinodal decomposition and nucleation and growth processes. The complementary benefits and challenges associated with correlative STEM-EDS and APT are discussed.
The unprecedented political and economic reforms taking place in Myanmar offer new opportunities for biodiversity conservation. They also bring new challenges in the form of rapidly growing extractive industry and agriculture sectors that have been weakly regulated and are often unsustainable. The Endangered hog deer Axis porcinus epitomizes many of these conservation challenges, and those facing most deer species in the Indo–Burma hotspot. The hog deer has disappeared from large parts of its range as a result of overhunting and intense conversion of its floodplain grassland habitat for agriculture. We report on a population of hog deer that was discovered in the Indawgyi landscape in central Myanmar in 2012. We conducted the first rigorous assessment of a hog deer population in Myanmar using an occupancy sampling protocol, tested the protocol's robustness using a power analysis, and present the results to guide management intervention. The results from our study site revealed widespread occurrence of the species, with high precision. The population map was then used to inform the development of a conservation management zone within a UNESCO Man and Biosphere Reserve around Indawgyi Lake. The importance of this population for the status of the hog deer in Myanmar remains unknown because documentation of the species has been sparse. Our survey protocol could make a significant contribution to addressing this knowledge gap and setting an informed agenda for conservation of the hog deer both nationally and more widely across the Indo-Burma hotspot.
A case-control study was conducted to determine risk factors for hospital-onset Clostridium difficile infection among patients admitted to 2 surgical units. Ertapenem prophylaxis was significantly associated with C. difficile infection risk (odds ratio, 3.13 [95% CI, 1.13–8.68], P=.028) and may offer an antimicrobial stewardship target among surgical patients.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;36(11):1351–1354
The logistics of time-efficient yet accurate documentation of archaeological features are a challenge within the context of pedestrian survey. Here we present results of two case studies documenting the use of photogrammetry under field conditions within the Great Plains. Results demonstrate the ease with which high quality models can be obtained with minimal training and by using standard field cameras and computers. Different models of pit hearth and architectural features are presented to demonstrate the versatility of model output formats in terms of their accessibility to broad audiences and the variety of display options available. Comparison with more traditional field measurements indicates the suitability and superiority of this approach in terms of time investment and mapping detail and accuracy. Combined, these efforts demonstrate the potential of this technique to be incorporated into the standard practices of academic and professional field projects with minimal interruption.