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Active Trypanosoma cruzi transmission persists in the Gran Chaco region, which is considered hyperendemic for Chagas disease. Understanding domestic and sylvatic transmission cycles and therefore the relationship between vectors and mammalian hosts is crucial to designing and implementing improved effective control strategies. Here we describe the species of triatomine vectors and the sylvatic mammal reservoirs of T. cruzi, in different localities of the Paraguayan and Bolivian Chaco. We identify the T. cruzi genotypes discrete typing units (DTUs) and provide a map of their geographical distribution. A total of 1044 triatomines and 138 sylvatic mammals were captured. Five per cent of the triatomines were microscopically positive for T. cruzi (55 Triatoma infestans from Paraguay and one sylvatic Triatoma guasayana from Bolivia) and 17 animals (12·3%) comprising eight of 28 (28·5%) Dasypus novemcinctus, four of 27 (14·8%) Euphractus sexcinctus, three of 64 (4·7%) Chaetophractus spp. and two of 14 (14·3%) Didelphis albiventris. The most common DTU infecting domestic triatomine bugs was TcV (64%), followed by TcVI (28%), TcII (6·5%) and TcIII (1·5%). TcIII was overwhelmingly associated with armadillo species. We confirm the primary role of T. infestans in domestic transmission, armadillo species as the principal sylvatic hosts of TcIII, and consider the potential risk of TcIII as an agent of Chagas disease in the Chaco.
There are multiple recent reports of an association between anxious/depressed (A/D) symptomatology and the rate of cerebral cortical thickness maturation in typically developing youths. We investigated the degree to which anxious/depressed symptoms are tied to age-related microstructural changes in cerebral fiber pathways. The participants were part of the NIH MRI Study of Normal Brain Development. Child Behavior Checklist A/D scores and diffusion imaging were available for 175 youths (84 males, 91 females; 241 magnetic resonance imagings) at up to three visits. The participants ranged from 5.7 to 18.4 years of age at the time of the scan. Alignment of fractional anisotropy data was implemented using FSL/Tract-Based Spatial Statistics, and linear mixed model regression was carried out using SPSS. Child Behavior Checklist A/D was associated with the rate of microstructural development in several white matter pathways, including the bilateral anterior thalamic radiation, bilateral inferior longitudinal fasciculus, left superior longitudinal fasciculus, and right cingulum. Across these pathways, greater age-related fractional anisotropy increases were observed at lower levels of A/D. The results suggest that subclinical A/D symptoms are associated with the rate of microstructural development within several white matter pathways that have been implicated in affect regulation, as well as mood and anxiety psychopathology.
Focusing on events on the south-east Ulster frontier, this article seeks to think afresh about the sectarian dimensions of republican violence on the Irish border amid the twin upheavals of revolution and partition. Drawing on a variety of primary sources, it questions a number of the intuitive notions that surround the phenomenon. In doing so, it highlights the limitations of the current discourse on sectarian violence and aims to encourage a more nuanced appreciation of the complex processes and behaviours that both facilitated and limited such violence at a grassroots level.
We investigate the interplay between the local and asymptotic geometry of a set
and the geometry of model sets
, which approximate
locally uniformly on small scales. The framework for local set approximation developed in this paper unifies and extends ideas of Jones, Mattila and Vuorinen, Reifenberg, and Preiss. We indicate several applications of this framework to variational problems that arise in geometric measure theory and partial differential equations. For instance, we show that the singular part of the support of an
-dimensional asymptotically optimally doubling measure in
) has upper Minkowski dimension at most
Domestic squalor has been associated with alcohol misuse but little work has explored this. Executive dysfunction is commonly observed in squalor and is also associated with alcohol misuse. Hoarding can accompany squalor, but it is unclear whether hoarding is also linked with alcohol misuse. This study compared neuropsychology and hoarding status of individuals living in squalor with and without a history of alcohol misuse.
A subgroup analysis was conducted on a series of 69 neuropsychological reports of people living in squalor. Data on cognitive profiles, basic demographics, alcohol use, and hoarding were extracted and analyzed.
Alcohol misuse was reported in 25 of the 69 participants (36%). Alcohol misusers were significantly younger (mean age 66.2 years, SD = 10.7) than non-misusers (mean age 75.6 years, SD = 10.3) (p < 0.00) and significantly more likely to be male (p = 0.01). No significant differences between the two subgroups were found for estimated premorbid intellectual functioning, Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores, or individual neuropsychological domains. Alcohol misusers were more likely to be living in squalor without hoarding than squalor with hoarding (p = 0.01).
Alcohol misusers living in squalor were less likely to hoard than non-misusers. This finding suggests that alcohol misuse may be a risk factor for squalor via failure to maintain one's environment rather than through intentional accumulation of objects. The similar cognitive profile among those with and without a history of alcohol misuse could represent a common pattern of executive dysfunction that predisposes individuals to squalor regardless of underlying alcohol misuse diagnosis.
Analyzing historical trajectories of social interactions at varying scales can lead to complementary interpretations of relationships among archaeological settlements. We use social network analysis combined with geographic information systems at three spatial scales over time in the western U.S. Southwest to show how the same social processes affected network dynamics at each scale. The period we address, A.D. 1200–1450, was characterized by migration and demographic upheaval. The tumultuous late thirteenth-century interval was followed by population coalescence and the development of widespread religious movements in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. In the southern Southwest these processes resulted in a highly connected network that drew in members of different settlements within and between different valleys that had previously been distinct. In the northern Southwest networks were initially highly connected followed by a more fragmented social landscape. We examine how different network textures emerged at each scale through 50-year snapshots. The results demonstrate the usefulness of applying a multiscalar approach to complex historical trajectories and the potential for social network analysis as applied to archaeological data.
The synthetic auxin herbicides, aminocyclopyrachlor and clopyralid, control dicotyledonous weeds in turf. Clippings of turfgrass treated with synthetic auxin herbicides have injured off-target plants exposed to herbicide-laden clippings. Labels of aminocyclopyrachlor and clopyralid recommend that clippings of treated turfgrass remain on the turf following a mowing event. Alternative uses for synthetic auxin-treated turfgrass clippings are needed because large quantities of clippings on the turf surface interfere with the functionality and aesthetics of golf courses, athletic fields, and residential turf. A white clover bioassay was conducted to determine the persistence and bioavailability of aminocyclopyrachlor and clopyralid in turfgrass clippings. Aminocyclopyrachlor and clopyralid were each applied at 79 g ae ha−1 to mature tall fescue at 56, 28, 14, 7, 3.5, and 1.75 d before clipping collection (DBCC). Clippings were collected, and the treated clippings were recycled onto adjacent white clover plots to determine herbicidal persistence and potential for additional weed control. Clippings of tall fescue treated with aminocyclopyrachlor produced a nonlinear regression pattern of response on white clover. Calculated values for 50% response (GR50) for visual control, for normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI), and for reduction in harvested biomass were 20.5, 17.3, and 18.7 DBCC, respectively, 8 wk after clippings were applied. Clippings of tall fescue treated with clopyralid did not demonstrate a significant pattern for white clover control, presumably because clopyralid was applied at a less-than-label rate. The persistence and bioavailability of synthetic auxin herbicides in clippings harvested from previously treated turfgrass creates the opportunity to recycle clippings for additional weed control.
Squalor is an epiphenomenon associated with a range of medical and psychiatric conditions. People living in squalor are not well described in the literature, and prior work has indicated that up to 50% do not have a psychiatric diagnosis. Squalor appears to be linked with neuropsychological deficits suggestive of the presence of impaired executive function. We present a case series of people living in squalor that examines their neuropsychological assessment and diagnosis.
Clinicians from local health networks were invited to submit neuropsychological reports of patients living in squalor. These selected reports were screened to ensure the presence of squalor and a comprehensive examination of a set of core neuropsychological domains. Assessments were included if basic attention, visuospatial reasoning, information processing speed, memory function, and executive function were assessed.
Sixty-nine neuropsychological reports were included. Sixty-eight per cent of the group underwent neuropsychological assessments during an inpatient admission. For participants where it was available (52/69), the mean Mini-Mental State Examination score was 25.29 (SD = 3.96). Neuropsychological assessment showed a range of cognitive impairment with nearly all the participants (92.75%) found to have frontal executive dysfunction. One person had an unimpaired neuropsychological assessment. Results indicated that dorsolateral prefrontal rather than orbitofrontal functions were more likely to be impaired. Vascular etiology was the most common cause implicated by neuropsychologists.
Frontal executive dysfunction was a prominent finding in the neuropsychological profiles of our sample of squalor patients, regardless of their underlying medical or psychiatric diagnoses. Our study highlights the importance of considering executive dysfunction when assessing patients who live in squalor.
The complex relationship between masculinity and religion, as experienced in both the secular and ecclesiastical worlds, forms the focus for this volume, whose range encompasses the rabbis of the Babylonian and Palestinian Talmud, and moves via Carolingian and Norman France, Siena, Antioch, and high and late medieval England to the eve of the Reformation. Chapters investigate the creation and reconstitution of different expressions of masculine identity, from the clerical enthusiasts for marriage to the lay practitioners of chastity, from crusading bishops to holy kings. They also consider the extent to which lay and clerical understandings of masculinity existed in an unstable dialectical relationship, at times sharing similar features, at others pointedly different, co-opting and rejecting features of the other; the articles show this interplay to be more far more complicated than a simple linear narrative of either increasing divergence, or of clerical colonization of lay masculinity. They also challenge conventional historiographies of the adoption of clerical celibacy, of the decline of monasticism and the gendered nature of piety. Patricia Cullum is Head of History at the University of Huddersfield; Katherine J. Lewis is Senior Lecturer in History at the University of Huddersfield. Contributors: James G. Clark, P.H. Cullum, Kirsten A. Fenton, Joanna Huntington, Katherine J. Lewis, Matthew Mesley, Catherine Sanok, Michael L. Satlow, Rachel Stone, Jennifer D. Thibodeaux, Marita von Weissenberg