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Non-medical cannabis recently became legal for adults in Canada. Legalization provides opportunity to investigate the public health effects of national cannabis legalization on presentations to emergency departments (EDs). Our study aimed to explore association between cannabis-related ED presentations, poison control and telemedicine calls, and cannabis legalization.
Data were collected from the National Ambulatory Care Reporting System from October 1, 2013, to July 31, 2019, for 14 urban Alberta EDs, from Alberta poison control, and from HealthLink, a public telehealth service covering all of Alberta. Visitation data were obtained to compare pre- and post-legalization periods. An interrupted time-series analysis accounting for existing trends was completed, in addition to the incidence rate ratio (IRR) and relative risk calculation (to evaluate changes in co-diagnoses).
Although only 3 of every 1,000 ED visits within the time period were attributed to cannabis, the number of cannabis-related ED presentations increased post-legalization by 3.1 (range -11.5 to 12.6) visits per ED per month (IRR 1.45, 95% confidence interval [CI]; 1.39, 1.51; absolute level change: 43.5 visits per month, 95% CI; 26.5, 60.4). Cannabis-related calls to poison control also increased (IRR 1.87, 95% CI; 1.55, 2.37; absolute level change: 4.0 calls per month, 95% CI; 0.1, 7.9). Lastly, we observed increases in cannabis-related hyperemesis, unintentional ingestion, and individuals leaving the ED pre-treatment. We also observed a decrease in co-ingestant use.
Overall, Canadian cannabis legalization was associated with small increases in urban Alberta cannabis-related ED visits and calls to a poison control centre.
Pauline theology is a well-established undertaking in modern New Testament studies, and yet it is almost entirely without precedent prior to the nineteenth century. This article explores the enterprise of Pauline theology by considering an important and overlooked exception to its otherwise exclusively modern provenance: Priscillian of Avila's fourth-century Canons on the Letters of the Apostle Paul. The key to Priscillian's dogmatic synthesis of Paul's thought was his innovative ‘versification’ of Paul's letters, which facilitated efficient citation and cross-referencing of epistolary data. This article uses Priscillian's literary creation to examine the intriguing correlation of technologies for ordering textual knowledge with the systematic abstraction of Pauline theology.
Two radiocarbon excursions (AD 774–775 and AD 993–994) occurred due to an increase of incoming cosmic rays on a short timescale. The most plausible cause of these events is considered to be extreme solar proton events (SPE). It is possible that there are other annual 14C excursions in the past that have yet to be confirmed. In order to detect more of these events, we measured the 14C contents in bristlecone pine tree-ring samples during the periods when the rate of 14C increase in the IntCal data is large. We analyzed four periods every other year (2479–2455 BC, 4055–4031 BC, 4465–4441 BC, and 4689–4681 BC), and found no anomalous 14C excursions during these periods. This study confirms that it is important to do continuous measurements to find annual cosmic-ray events at other locations in the tree-ring record.
Field emission (FE) measurements are reported from carbon nanotube (CNT) fibers and laser-patterned free standing films fabricated by direct online condensation from a floating catalyst chemical vapor deposition reactor. Fiber and film cathodes showed stable emission in the 1–2 mA current (I) range at maximum cathode temperatures less than 1000 °C; film cathodes show localized heating at the triangular tips and higher maximum temperatures than the fibers. Fowler–Nordheim (FN) analysis indicated a change in the morphology of the emitters with increasing external electrical field (Eext). Fiber cathode I–Eext data are interpreted as FN emission from the fiber tip which is eventually limited by space-charge effects. At higher Eext, FN emission from the fiber sidewall occurs. The single fiber cathode stopped emitting abruptly when field induced self-heating effects became significant. For CNT films, self-heating effects can destroy a portion of the film, but FE can still occur from other areas.
Of all the civil wars that have erupted over the past half-century, a large number – but hardly all – involve nationalist movements pursuing greater autonomy. While the sheer number of ethno-nationalist civil wars offers evidence that nationalism can contribute to warfare, many countries with multiple and competing forms of nationalism are not afflicted by civil war and manage nationalist tensions in non-violent ways. Thus, nationalism appears linked to warfare but is neither necessary nor sufficient for it.
This chapter explores factors that help determine whether nationalist movements turn violent. It compares competing nationalist movements in Canada and Sri Lanka and considers why the former has been overwhelmingly peaceful while the latter has suffered a long and devastating civil war. The analysis suggests that nationalism promotes civil war by intensifying grievances and shaping incentives but that these effects depend on contextual factors. Most notably, nationalism has only limited motivational effect in environments with abundant resources and effective and non-discriminatory political institutions. Alternatively, it intensifies the grievances caused by economic scarcity and ineffective and discriminatory political institutions, increases incentives to eliminate nationalist rivals in environments with limited resources and ineffective and discriminatory political institutions, and thereby contributes to nationalist violence.