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Machines incorporating techniques from artificial intelligence and machine learning can work with human users on a moment-to-moment, real-time basis to generate creative outcomes, performances and artefacts. We define such systems collaborative, creative AI systems, and in this article, consider the theoretical and practical considerations needed for their design so as to support improvisation, performance and co-creation through real-time, sustained, moment-to-moment interaction. We begin by providing an overview of creative AI systems, examining strengths, opportunities and criticisms in order to draw out the key considerations when designing AI for human creative collaboration. We argue that the artistic goals and creative process should be first and foremost in any design. We then draw from a range of research that looks at human collaboration and teamwork, to examine features that support trust, cooperation, shared awareness and a shared information space. We highlight the importance of understanding the scope and perception of two-way communication between human and machine agents in order to support reflection on conflict, error, evaluation and flow. We conclude with a summary of the range of design challenges for building such systems in provoking, challenging and enhancing human creative activity through their creative agency.
Discrete episodes of overconsumption may induce a positive energy balance and impair metabolic control. However, the effects of an ecologically relevant, single day of balanced macronutrient overfeeding are unknown. Twelve healthy men (of age 22 (sd 2) years, BMI 26·1 (sd 4·2) kg/m2) completed two 28 h, single-blind experimental trials. In a counterbalanced repeated measures design, participants either consumed their calculated daily energy requirements (energy balance trial (EB): 10 755 (sd 593) kJ) or were overfed by 50 % (overfeed trial (OF): 16 132 (sd 889) kJ) under laboratory supervision. Participants returned to the laboratory the next day, after an overnight fast, to complete a mixed-meal tolerance test (MTT). Appetite was not different between trials during day 1 (P>0·211) or during the MTT in the fasted or postprandial state (P>0·507). Accordingly, plasma acylated ghrelin, total glucagon-like peptide-1 and total peptide YY concentrations did not differ between trials during the MTT (all P>0·335). Ad libitum energy intake, assessed upon completion of the MTT, did not differ between trials (EB 6081 (sd 2260) kJ; OF 6182 (sd 1960) kJ; P=0·781). Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were not different between trials (P>0·715). Fasted NEFA concentrations were lower in OF compared with EB (P=0·005), and TAG concentrations increased to a greater extent on OF than on EB during the MTT (P=0·009). The absence of compensatory changes in appetite-related variables after 1 d of mixed macronutrient overfeeding highlights the limited physiological response to defend against excess energy intake. This supports the concept that repeated discrete episodes of overconsumption may promote weight gain, while elevations in postprandial lipaemia may increase CVD risk.
Once the domain of a few spacefaring nations, outer space has exploded with new actors, state and private, in recent years. New actors and activities bring new potential threats and concerns for new and existing actors alike. In this complex environment, where mistrust and misunderstanding often prevail, international law can play an important role in bridging gaps and creating predictability, clarity, and consistency. Although new treaty law is unlikely, the ordinary incremental international law processes of state practice, opinio juris, and international jurisprudence will help to resolve critical questions about the content and application of international law in outer space over time.
The ability to regulate stress is a critical developmental milestone of early childhood that involves a set of interconnected behavioral and physiological processes and is influenced by genetic and environmental stimuli. Prenatal exposure to traumatic stress and trauma, including intimate partner violence (IPV), increases risk for offspring biobehavioral regulation problems during childhood and adolescence. Although individual differences in susceptibility to prenatal stress have been largely unexplored, a handful of studies suggest children with specific genetic characteristics are most vulnerable to prenatal stress. We evaluated the brain-derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met gene (BDNF) as a moderator of the effect of prenatal IPV exposure on infant temperamental and cortisol regulation in response to a psychosocial challenge. Ninety-nine mother–infant dyads recruited from the community were assessed when infants (51% female) were 11 to 14 months. Maternal reports of IPV during pregnancy and infant temperament were obtained, and infant saliva was collected for genotyping and to assess cortisol reactivity (before and after the Strange Situation Task). Significant genetic moderation effects were found. Among infants with the BDNF Met allele, prenatal IPV predicted worse temperamental regulation and mobilization of the cortisol response, while controlling for infant postnatal exposure to IPV, other maternal traumatic experiences, and infant sex. However, prenatal IPV exposure was not associated with temperamental or cortisol outcomes among infant carriers of the Val/Val genotype. Findings are discussed in relation to prenatal programming and biological susceptibility to stress.
The widespread use of smartphones makes effective therapies such as cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) potentially accessible to large numbers of people.
This paper reports the usage data of the first trial of Catch It, a new CBT smartphone app.
Uptake and usage rates, fidelity of user responses to CBT principles, and impact on reported negative and positive moods were assessed.
A relatively modest proportion of people chose to download the app. Once used, the app tended to be used more than once, and 84% of the user-generated content was consistent with the basic concepts of CBT. There were statistically significant reductions in negative mood intensity and increases in positive mood intensity.
Smartphone apps have potential beneficial effects in mental health through the application of basic CBT principles. More research with randomised controlled trial designs should be conducted.
The structure and kinematics of the broad line region in quasars are still unknown. One popular model is the disk-wind model that offers a geometric unification of a quasar based on the viewing angle. We construct a simple kinematical disk-wind model with a narrow outflowing wind angle. The model is combined with radiative transfer in the Sobolev, or high velocity, limit. We examine how angle of viewing affects the observed characteristics of the emission line. The line profiles were found to exhibit distinct properties depending on the orientation, wind opening angle, and region of the wind where the emission arises.
At low inclination angle (close to face-on), we find that the shape of the emission line is asymmetric, narrow, and significantly blueshifted. As the inclination angle increases (close to edge-on), the line profile becomes more symmetric, broader, and less blueshifted. Additionally, lines that arise close to the base of the disk wind, near the accretion disk, tend to be broad and symmetric. Single-peaked line profiles are recovered for the intermediate and equatorial wind. The model is also able to reproduce a faster response in either the red or blue sides of the line profile, consistent with reverberation mapping studies.
We study the set
of labelled seeds of a cluster algebra of rank n inside a field
as a homogeneous space for the group Mn of (globally defined) mutations and relabellings. Regular equivalence relations on
are associated to subgroups W of AutMn(
), and we thus obtain groupoids W\
. We show that for two natural choices of equivalence relation, the corresponding groups Wc and W+ act on
, and the groupoids Wc\
act on the model field
=ℚ(x1,. . .,xn). The groupoid W+\
is equivalent to Fock–Goncharov's cluster modular groupoid. Moreover, Wc is isomorphic to the group of cluster automorphisms, and W+ to the subgroup of direct cluster automorphisms, in the sense of Assem–Schiffler–Shramchenko.
We also prove that, for mutation classes whose seeds have mutation finite quivers, the stabiliser of a labelled seed under Mn determines the quiver of the seed up to ‘similarity’, meaning up to taking opposites of some of the connected components. Consequently, the subgroup Wc is the entire automorphism group of
in these cases.
Understanding resilience is important to creating and maintaining health in the workplace, and the focal article by Britt, Shen, Sinclair, Grossman, and Klieger (2016) raises valuable questions and recommendations for research in the field. In this commentary we consider several issues not discussed by Britt et al. but critical to understanding resilience in organizational settings. In particular, we discuss the utility of process-oriented models and, specifically, the role of self-regulatory processes as foundational mechanisms of resiliency. We agree with many of Britt et al.’s recommendations and provide additional perspectives and information based on recent research on resiliency in military personnel experiencing cross-cultural adversity, in executives experiencing unwanted career transitions, and in recent immigrants searching for employment.
The borderline between the periods commonly termed "medieval" and "Renaissance", or "medieval" and "early modern", is one of the most hotly, energetically and productively contested faultlines in literary history studies. The essays presented in this volume both build upon and respond to the work of Professor Helen Cooper, a scholar who has long been committed to exploring the complex connectionsand interactions between medieval and Renaissance literature. The contributors re-examine a range of ideas, authors and genres addressed in her work, including pastoral, chivalric romance, early English drama, and the writings of Chaucer, Langland, Spenser and Shakespeare. As a whole, the volume aims to stimulate active debates on the ways in which Renaissance writers used, adapted, and remembered aspects of the medieval.
Andrew King is Lecturer in Medieval and Renaissance Literature at University College, Cork; Matthew Woodcock is Senior Lecturer in Medieval and Renaissance Literature at the University of East Anglia.
Contributors: Joyce Boro, Aisling Byrne, Nandini Das, Mary C. Flannery, Alexandra Gillespie, Andrew King, Megan G. Leitch, R.W. Maslen, Jason Powell,Helen Vincent, James Wade, Matthew Woodcock