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External aortic compression (EAC) has long been used to control exsanguinating post-partum hemorrhage, but it has only recently been described in the prehospital trauma setting. This paper reports four cases where manual EAC was used during transport to manage life-threatening bleeding, twice from stab wounds, once from ruptured ectopic pregnancy, and once from severe lower-limb trauma. It showed that EAC has life-saving potential in the prehospital setting, but that safety and efficacy during transport requires the use of a hands-free compression device, such as an aortic tourniquet.
The WTO concluded in 2012 that subsidized aeronautical research and development (R&D) gave Boeing a head start in product development that caused serious prejudice to the interests of Airbus but later, in 2019, it could not decide how long that head start had lasted. Meanwhile, the WTO concluded in 2018 that launch aid for Airbus aircraft led to innovations that also improved later aircraft models, thereby contributing to serious prejudice to the interests of Boeing. Both conclusions relied on a causation analysis that considered the effects of technological innovation, which makes subsidies used for R&D particularly vulnerable to challenge. This novel analysis may be too broad for the actionable subsidy disciplines of the SCM Agreement.
The proximity of minerals found in human hard tissues may influence cell phenotype. Since cells respond to a range of environmental cues, this study sought to identify the influence of two apatite-based microparticles, hydroxyapatite (HA) and fluoroapatite (FA), upon dental and bone cells. After bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs), 7F2 osteoblasts and dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) were plated into media with or without HA or FA particles, the cells were analyzed for alkaline phosphatase (ALP) production, collagen I production, osteocalcin production, and mineralization for two weeks. The BMSCs and DPSCs in media without any microparticles produced more ALP compared to those with microparticles from Day 5 forward. In addition, the collagen I and osteocalcin production in cultures without microparticles was higher than in cultures containing either HA or FA particles. While some studies have shown increased osteogeonic differentiation in the presence of mineral particles, those studies used nanoparticles that were able to be internalized by the cells and were smaller than the microparticles used in this study.
This book presents a wide range of new research on many aspects of naval strategy in the early modern and modern periods. Among the themes covered are the problems of naval manpower, the nature of naval leadership and naval officers, intelligence, naval training and education, and strategic thinking and planning. The book is notable for giving extensive consideration to navies other than those ofBritain, its empire and the United States. It explores a number of fascinating subjects including how financial difficulties frustrated the attempts by Louis XIV's ministers to build a strong navy; how the absence of centralised power in the Dutch Republic had important consequences for Dutch naval power; how Hitler's relationship with his admirals severely affected German naval strategy during the Second World War; and many more besides. The book is a Festschrift in honour of John B. Hattendorf, for more than thirty years Ernest J. King Professor of Maritime History at the US Naval War College and an influential figure in naval affairs worldwide.
N.A.M. Rodger is Senior Research Fellow at All Souls College, Oxford.
J. Ross Dancy is Assistant Professor of Military History at Sam Houston State University.
Benjamin Darnell is a D.Phil. candidate at New College, Oxford.
Evan Wilson is Caird Senior Research Fellow at the National Maritime Museum, Greenwich.
Contributors: Tim Benbow, Peter John Brobst, Jaap R. Bruijn, Olivier Chaline, J. Ross Dancy, Benjamin Darnell, James Goldrick, Agustín Guimerá, Paul Kennedy, Keizo Kitagawa, Roger Knight, Andrew D. Lambert, George C. Peden, Carla Rahn Phillips, Werner Rahn, Paul M. Ramsey, Duncan Redford, N.A.M. Rodger, Jakob Seerup, Matthew S. Seligmann, Geoffrey Till, Evan Wilson
In the wake of the Faroe Islands fishing dispute, this article seeks to clarify the status of overseas territories in the World Trade Organization (WTO). The article considers the rule of public international law regarding the territorial application of treaties, the impact of territorial limitations in WTO goods and services schedules and the treaty actions of individual States responsible for the international relations of overseas territories. The article then explores the implications of WTO rights and obligations in respect of Members' overseas territories, including limitations on free riding and preferential treatment.