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The first in a four-volume set, The Cambridge World History of Violence, Volume 1 provides a comprehensive examination of violence in prehistory and the ancient world. Covering the Palaeolithic through to the end of classical antiquity, the chapters take a global perspective spanning sub-Saharan Africa, the Near East, Europe, India, China, Japan and Central America. Unlike many previous works, this book does not focus only on warfare but examines violence as a broader phenomenon. The historical approach complements, and in some cases critiques, previous research on the anthropology and psychology of violence in the human story. Written by a team of contributors who are experts in each of their respective fields, Volume 1 will be of particular interest to anyone fascinated by archaeology and the ancient world.
Narrative theory is essential to everything from history to lyric poetry, from novels to the latest Hollywood blockbuster. Narrative theory explores how stories work and how we make them work. This Companion is both an introduction and a contribution to the field. It presents narrative theory as an approach to understanding all kinds of cultural production: from literary texts to historiography, from film and videogames to philosophical discourse. It takes the long historical view, outlines essential concepts, and reflects on the way narrative forms connect with and rework social forms. The volume analyzes central premises, identifies narrative theory's feminist foundations, and elaborates its significance to queer theory and issues of race. The specially commissioned essays are exciting to read, uniting accessibility and rigor, traditional concerns with a renovated sense of the field as a whole, and analytical clarity with stylistic dash. Topical and substantial, The Cambridge Companion to Narrative Theory is an engaging resource on a key contemporary concept.
A range of optical and optoelectronic applications would benefit from high refractive index (n), dense and transparent films that guide, concentrate and couple light. However, materials with high n usually have a high optical extinction coefficient (κ) which keeps these materials from being suitable for optical components that require long optical paths. We studied titanium hafnium oxide alloy films to obtain high refractive index (n>2) with minimum optical extinction coefficients (κ < 10−5) over the visible and near IR spectrum (380-930 nm). Titanium hafnium oxide alloys were deposited using pulsed DC reactive magnetron sputtering with and without RF substrate bias on silicon dioxide. For a given deposition condition intended for a specific titanium/hafnium molar fraction ratio, the ion energy of deposition species was explicitly controlled by varying the RF substrate bias. Spectroscopic ellipsometry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to characterize the films. It appears that applying RF substrate bias reduces the nanocrystalline size, changes the surface morphology and increases the refractive index while maintaining comparable titanium/hafnium cation molar fraction. Precise control of the nanostructure of ternary metal oxides can alter their macroscopic properties, resulting in improved optical films.
We present a concept to increase efficiencies utilizing nonlinear elements integrated with our semiconductor nanowire networks. Demonstrated here is power generation with thermoelectric devices made of two nanowire networks, one silicon and one indium phosphide, grown on a mechanically flexible copper substrate. Electron microscopy was utilized to characterize structural integrity of the nanowire networks. Non-linear current-voltage characteristics were observed, which suggests a new platform to increase maximum electrical power generation for a given temperature gradient.
A process for the review of significant trade in species listed in CITES Appendix II was established to address problems with the application of CITES Article IV. Article IV states that international trade in Appendix II species requires a Scientific Authority of the state of export to determine that such trade will not be detrimental to the species’ survival in the wild. Such a review process was initiated for the plant species Galanthus woronowii Losinsk. as a result of continuing uncertainty over the sustainability of international exports of the plant from wild populations in Georgia, and the Georgian Management Authority was tasked with determining and reporting whether export levels conformed to Article IV. Here we report on the project that was established to address that task. Nationwide field surveys conducted in 2009 led to the recommendation of a conservative annual export quota of 15 million plants for the sites surveyed. Cultivated populations held significant stocks of harvestable plants but with varied cultivation histories, especially in relation to the extent and nature of supplementary planting. Future work should continue to monitor harvesting from wild populations and identify solutions for local communities wishing to cultivate the plant for international trade.