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With the increasing enthusiasm to provide cognitive remediation (CR) as an evidence-based practice, questions arise as to what is involved in implementing CR in a large system of care. This article describes the first statewide implementation of CR in the USA, with the goal of documenting the implementation issues that care providers are likely to face when bringing CR services to their patients.
In 2014, the New York State Office of Mental Health set up a Cognitive Health Service that could be implemented throughout the state-operated system of care. This service was intended to broadly address cognitive health, to assure that the cognitive deficits commonly associated with psychiatric illnesses are recognized and addressed, and that cognitive health is embedded in the vocabulary of wellness. It involved creating a mechanism to train staff to recognize how cognitive health could be prioritized in treatment planning as well as implementing CR in state-operated adult outpatient psychiatry clinics.
By 2017, CR was available at clinics serving people with serious mental illness in 13 of 16 adult Psychiatric Centers, located in rural and urban settings throughout New York state. The embedded quality assurance program evaluation tools indicated that CR was acceptable, sustainable, and effective.
Cognitive remediation can be feasibly implemented in large systems of care that provide a multilevel system of supports, a training program that educates broadly about cognitive health and specifically about the delivery of CR, and embedded, ongoing program evaluation that is linked to staff supervision.
Using data from a multi-site study of parent–child symptom reporting concordance, this secondary analysis explored the role of parent self-efficacy related to pain management for seriously ill school-age children and adolescents.
In the initial study, 50 children and adolescents who were expected to survive 3 years or less were recruited along with their parent/primary caregiver. Parent self-report data were used in this secondary analysis to describe parent self-efficacy for managing their child's pain, caregiver strain, mood states, and perception of the child's pain; to explore relationships among these variables; and to determine predictors of greater self-efficacy.
Parents expressed a wide range of self-efficacy levels (Chronic Pain Self-Efficacy Scale; possible range 10–100, mean 76.2, SD 14.7) and higher levels on average than reported previously by family caregivers of adult patients. Caregiver Strain Index scores were markedly high (possible range 0–13, mean 8.1, SD 3.8) and inversely correlated with self-efficacy (r = −0.44, p = 0.001). On the Profile of Mood States parents reported more negative moods (t = 4.0, p < 0.001) and less vigor (t = −5.0, p < 0.001) than adults in a normative sample, yet vigor rather than mood disturbance predicted self-efficacy. With the exception of child age, self-efficacy was not associated with demographics (child gender, ethnicity, household income, parent age, education, family size) or with the diagnostic groups (primarily cardiac and oncologic) comprising the sample. Younger child age, less caregiver strain, more parent vigor, and parent perception that child is without pain predicted more than half of the variance in parent self-efficacy (R2 = 0.51).
Significance of results:
Findings advance knowledge of parent self-efficacy in managing the pain of a child with life-threatening illness. Results can be used to design supportive interventions enhancing parents’ caregiving roles during their child's last stages of life.
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