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The idea of flame retardant materials dates back to about 450 BC, when the Egyptians used alum to reduce the flammability of wood. The Romans (in about 200 BC) used a mixture of alum and vinegar to reduce the combustibility of wood. Today, there are more than 175 chemicals classified as flame retardants. The major groups are inorganic, halogenated, organic, organophosphorus, and nitrogen-based flame retardants, which account for 50%, 25%, 20%, and >5% of the annual production, respectively.
In many cases, existing flame retardant systems show considerable disadvantages. The application of aluminum trihydrate and magnesium hydroxide requires a very high portion of the filler to be deployed within the polymer matrix; filling levels of more than 60 wt% are necessary to achieve suitable flame retardancy, for example, in cables and wires. Clear disadvantages of these filling levels are the high density and the lack of flexibility of end products, the poor mechanical properties, and the problematic compounding and extrusion steps.
Gaetano Zaccara, Unit of Neurology, Santa Maria Nuova Hospital, Florence, Italy,
Andrea Messori, Drug Information Centre, Careggi Hospital, Florence, Italy,
Massimo Cincotta, Unit of Neurology, Santa Maria Nuova Hospital, Florence, Italy
This chapter discusses the clinical data concerning pharmacodynamic (PD) interactions of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) with antidepressants (ADs), antipsychotics (APs), central nervous system (CNS) stimulants, anesthetic agents, analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs. Experimental and clinical data suggest that AEDs and ADs have similar mechanisms of action which could result in favorable and/or unfavorable PD interactions depending on the particular agents involved. AP and AEDs are frequently co-administered and PD interactions concerning their effects on psychosis and seizure threshold are possible. At low doses, stimulants are co-administered with AEDs in the epileptic patient and seem to have beneficial PD interactions. Among anesthetic agents, lidocaine is of particular interest. Treatment of anesthetic-induced convulsions can be particularly difficult because of many possible unfavorable PD interactions. AEDs, analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs can often be co-administered for the treatment of some forms of pain.
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