The goal of this study is to compare operation and performance of the piezoelectric and carbon nanotube actuators, by focusing on the conditions that such piezoelectric device can be replaced by carbon nanotube actuators in a near future. For many years piezoelectric (PZT) and electrostrictors devices have been the key elements for the construction of actuator systems such as positioners, miniature ultrasonic motors, and adaptive mechanical motors. However, in recent years major advances and accomplishments have been reported in the field of nanotube materials, which promise a breakthrough in the field of nanosensors and nanoactuators. The aim here is to make a comparison between the PZT- and CNT-based actuator/sensor devices in terms of the actuator materials, designs, and device control techniques. First, a model is established for the operation of a typical PZT actuator and the related electromechanical coupling relations and equations governing the actuation process are described. In the second study actuation behavior of carbon nanotube materials is modeled and the results concerning a similar parameter to that of PZT are reported.