The Osaka University Aged Twin Registry (OUATR) is the largest adult twin registry in Japan. Since its establishment in 1974, the OUATR has conducted a number of studies with particular focus on the environmental contribution to physical–cognitive–mental aging, longevity and aging-dependent diseases in later adulthood. The registry consists of 12,000 pairs of Japanese twins born between 1900 and 1935. Two hundred and fifty pairs of twins have undergone comprehensive medical examination to date. Follow-up questionnaires have been mailed out on a regular basis, for the purpose of checking current vital statuses, health conditions, and so forth. The main objective of this longitudinal twin study is to contribute to the prevention of lifestyle-related diseases and the promotion of successful aging.