The present status of R&D for various types of solar cells is presented by overviewing research and development projects for solar cells in Japan as the PV R&D Project Leader of the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) and the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST). Developments of high-efficiency solar cells such as 44.4% (under concentration) and 37.9% (under 1-sun) InGaP/GaAs/InGaAs 3-junction solar cells by Sharp, 26.6% crystalline Si heterojunction back-contact (HBC) solar cells by Kaneka, 22.3% CIGS solar cells by Solar Frontier have been demonstrated under the NEDO PV R&D Project. 15.0% efficiency has also been attained with 1 cm2 perovskite solar cell by NIMS under the JST Project. This article also presents analytical results for efficiency potential of high-efficiency solar cells based on external radiative efficiency (ERE), open-circuit voltage loss and fill factor loss. Crystalline Si solar cells, GaAs, III–V compound 3-junction and 5-junction, CIGSe, and CdTe solar cells have efficiency potential of 28.5%, 29.7%, 42%, 43%, 26.5%, and 26.5% under 1-sun condition, respectively, by improvements in ERE.