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Interprofessional collaboration is understood to improve efficiencies and quality of care but is associated with challenges such as professionals’ differing routines, knowledge, and identities, as well as professional hierarchies and time constraints. Given these challenges, there is limited understanding of how professionals collaborate effectively in providing patient-centred care. This study, with a convergence triangulation mixed-methods study design, explored interprofessional staffs’ perceptions of interprofessional collaboration and patient-centred care when working with hospitalized older adults. Thirty-six staff responded to a survey which included the Patient-Centred Care measure and the Modified Index of Interdisciplinary Collaboration; we also interviewed 14 nursing staff. Although all scores suggested a high value was placed on interprofessional collaboration, scores were low related to activities that facilitated team processes. We identified three themes from the data: knowing the patient/family, functional needs, and communication processes. Staff identified daily rounds with interprofessional teams as supportive of interprofessional collaboration and patient-centred-care.
People with serious mental illness (SMI) have high rates of smoking and need better access to cessation treatment. Mobile behavioral interventions for cessation have been effective for the general population, but are not usable by many with SMI due to cognitive impairments or severe symptoms. We developed a tailored mobile cessation treatment intervention with features to reduce cognitive load.
We enrolled 20 smokers with SMI and showed them how to use the program on a device of their choice. They were assessed at 8 weeks for intervention use, usability, satisfaction, smoking characteristics, and biologically verified abstinence.
Participants accessed an average of 23.6 intervention sessions (SD = 17.05; range 1–48; median = 17.5) for an average total of 231.64 minutes (SD = 227.13; range 4.89–955.21; median = 158.18). For 87% of the sessions, average satisfaction scores were 3 or greater on a scale of 1–4. Regarding smoking, 25% of participants had reduced their smoking and 10% had biologically verified abstinence from smoking at 8 weeks.
Home and community use of this mobile cessation intervention was feasible among smokers with SMI. Further research is needed to evaluate such scalable approaches to increase access to behavioral treatment for this group.
Postmortem human brain studies provide the molecular, cellular, and circuitry levels of resolution essential for the development of mechanistically-novel interventions for cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. However, the absence of measures of premortem cognitive aptitude in postmortem subjects has presented a major challenge to interpreting the relationship between the severity of neural alterations and cognitive deficits within the same subjects.
To begin addressing this challenge, proxy measures of cognitive aptitude were evaluated in postmortem subjects (N = 507) meeting criteria for schizophrenia, major depressive or bipolar disorder, and unaffected comparison subjects. Specifically, highest levels of educational and occupational attainment of the decedent and their parents were obtained during postmortem psychological autopsies.
Consistent with prior findings in living subjects, subjects with schizophrenia had the lowest educational and occupational attainment relative to all other subject groups, and they also failed to show the generational improvement in attainment observed in all other subject groups.
Educational and occupational attainment data obtained during postmortem psychological autopsies can be used as proxy measures of premortem cognitive function to interrogate the neural substrate of cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia.
High unemployment is a hallmark of psychotic illness. Individual placement and support (IPS) may be effective at assisting the vocational recoveries of young people with first-episode psychosis (FEP).
To examine the effectiveness of IPS at assisting young people with FEP to gain employment (Australian and Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12608000094370).
Young people with FEP (n = 146) who were interested in vocational recovery were randomised using computer-generated random permuted blocks on a 1:1 ratio to: (a) 6 months of IPS in addition to treatment as usual (TAU) or (b) TAU alone. Assessments were conducted at baseline, 6 months (end of intervention), 12 months and 18 months post-baseline by research assistants who were masked to the treatment allocations.
At the end of the intervention the IPS group had a significantly higher rate of having been employed (71.2%) than the TAU group (48.0%), odds ratio 3.40 (95% CI 1.17–9.91, z = 2.25, P = 0.025). However, this difference was not seen at 12- and 18-month follow-up points. There was no difference at any time point on educational outcomes.
This is the largest trial to our knowledge on the effectiveness of IPS in FEP. The IPS group achieved a very high employment rate during the 6 months of the intervention. However, the advantage of IPS was not maintained in the long term. This seems to be related more to an unusually high rate of employment being achieved in the control group rather than a gross reduction in employment among the IPS group.
Mental health and substance misuse disorders are associated with unnatural deaths in prisoners. Deaths in Irish prisons between 2009 and 2014 were retrospectively analysed using coroner's findings, including post-mortem toxicology. There were 69 deaths in custody, 38 of which met inclusion criteria. All deaths by overdose (16) were positive for illicit drugs; 53% of deaths (8 of 15) due to hanging were also positive for illicit drugs, and 29% of deaths (2 of 7) from other causes were toxicology positive. In conclusion, 26 unnatural deaths (68%) were associated with use of illicit drugs, which are a major contributory factor to deaths of prisoners.
Structured, empirically supported psychological interventions are lacking for patients who require organ transplantation. This stage IA psychotherapy development project developed and tested the feasibility, acceptability, tolerability, and preliminary efficacy of an 8-week group cognitive behavioral stress management intervention adapted for patients with end-stage liver disease awaiting liver transplantation.
Twenty-nine English-speaking United Network for Organ Sharing–registered patients with end-stage liver disease from a single transplantation center enrolled in 8-week, group cognitive-behavioral liver stress management and relaxation training intervention adapted for patients with end-stage liver disease. Patients completed pre- and postintervention surveys that included the Beck Depression Inventory II and the Beck Anxiety Inventory. Feasibility, acceptability, tolerability, and preliminary efficacy were assessed.
Attendance rate was 69.40%. The intervention was rated as “good” to “excellent” by 100% of participants who completed the postintervention survey in teaching them new skills to relax and to cope with stress, and by 94.12% of participants in helping them feel supported while waiting for a liver transplant. No adverse events were recorded over the course of treatment. Attrition was 13.79%. Anxious and depressive symptoms were not statistically different after the intervention.
Significance of results
The liver stress management and relaxation training intervention is feasible, acceptable, and tolerable to end-stage liver disease patients within a transplant clinic setting. Anxious and depressive symptoms remained stable postintervention. Randomized controlled trials are needed to study the intervention's effectiveness in this population.
Malnourished HIV-infected patients starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) are at high risk of early mortality, some of which may be attributed to altered electrolyte metabolism. We used data from a randomised controlled trial of electrolyte-enriched lipid-based nutritional supplements to assess the association of baseline and time-varying serum phosphate and K concentrations with mortality within the first 12 weeks after starting ART. Baseline phosphate results were available from 1764 patients and there were 9096 subsequent serum phosphate measurements, a median of 6 per patient. For serum K there were 1701 baseline and 8773 subsequent measures, a median of 6 per patient. Abnormally high or low serum phosphate was more common than high or low serum K. Controlling for other factors found to affect mortality in this cohort, low phosphate which had not changed from the previous time interval was associated with increased mortality; the same was not true for high phosphate or for high or low K. Both increases and decreases in serum electrolytes from the previous time interval were generally associated with increased mortality, particularly in the electrolyte-supplemented group. The results suggest that changes in serum electrolytes, largely irrespective of the starting point and the direction of change, were more strongly associated with mortality than were absolute electrolyte levels. Although K and phosphate are required for tissue deposition during recovery from malnutrition, further studies are needed to determine whether specific supplements exacerbate physiologically adverse shifts in electrolyte levels during nutritional rehabilitation of ill malnourished HIV patients.
Objectives: Good glycemic control is an important goal of diabetes management. Late adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) are at risk for poor glycemic control as they move into young adulthood. For a subset of these patients, this dysregulation is extreme, placing them at risk for life-threatening health complications and permanent cognitive declines. The present study examined whether deficiency in emotional decision making (as measured by the Iowa Gambling Task; IGT) among teens with T1D may represent a neurocognitive risk factor for subsequent glycemic dysregulation. Methods: As part of a larger longitudinal study, a total of 241 high-school seniors (147 females, 94 males) diagnosed with T1D underwent baseline assessment that included the IGT. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), which reflects glycemic control over the course of the past 2 to 3 months, was also assessed at baseline. Of the 241,189 (127 females, 62 males, mean age=17.76, mean HbA1c=8.11) completed HbA1c measurement 1 year later. Results: Baseline IGT performance in the impaired range (per norms) was associated with greater dysregulation in glycemic control 1 year later, as evidenced by an average increase in HbA1c of 2%. Those with normal IGT scores (per norms) exhibited a more moderate increase in glycemic control, with an HbA1c increase of 0.7%. Several IGT scoring approaches were compared, showing that the total scores collapsed across all trials was most sensitive to change in glycemic control. Conclusions: IGT assessment offers promise as a tool for identifying late adolescents at increased risk for glycemic dysregulation. (JINS, 2017, 23, 204–213)
Evaluate the efficacy and safety of asenapine 2.5 mg twice daily (bid; n=97) or 5 mg bid (n=113) versus placebo (n=101) in adults with acute exacerbation of schizophrenia.
Adults with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) schizophrenia diagnosis were randomized to asenapine 2.5 mg bid, 5 mg bid, placebo, or olanzapine 15 mg once daily. The primary objective was to test superiority of asenapine versus placebo as measured by the change from baseline to day 42 in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score. The key safety objective was to evaluate weight change in asenapine versus olanzapine at day 42.
The primary efficacy endpoint was met; the difference in least squares mean change from baseline to day 42 in PANSS total score between asenapine 5 mg bid and placebo was −5.5 points (unadjusted 95% CI: −10.1, −1.0; multiplicity adjusted P=0.0356). Neither asenapine 2.5 mg bid nor olanzapine 15mg were superior to placebo.
Both asenapine groups demonstrated significantly less weight gain than olanzapine at day 42. Significantly higher incidences of oral hypoesthesia and dysgeusia (combined) for asenapine 2.5 mg bid (5.2% vs 0.0%; P=0.0217) and 5 mg bid (7.1% vs 0.0%; P=0.0033) were observed versus placebo. There were no significant differences between asenapine and placebo for insomnia, extrapyramidal symptoms, akathisia, dizziness, or combination of somnolence/sedation/hypersomnia.
This study supports previous efficacy and safety findings of asenapine; asenapine 5 mg bid is the lowest effective dose in adults with schizophrenia. Asenapine was associated with significantly less weight gain than olanzapine at day 42.
Background: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a neurocutaneous disorder with a wide spectrum of manifestations. Recent consensus recommendations stress the importance of multidisciplinary management of children with TSC. The objective of this study was to examine the manifestations of TSC at a large referral centre to determine the care needs of this population. Methods: A retrospective, systematic chart review was performed of children with TSC managed at British Columbia Children’s Hospital. Patients were identified through epilepsy and clinical neurophysiology databases. Results: The study population comprised 81 patients, born between 1987 and 2014, who were a median of 10 years (range, 0.2-23.2) at most recent follow-up. Epilepsy occurred in 91% of patients, including 32% with a history of infantile spasms. Nineteen patients underwent epilepsy surgery, nine (47%) of whom were seizure-free at most recent follow-up. Overall, 61% of epilepsy patients had been seizure-free for at least 1 year at the time of last follow-up. Neuropsychiatric disorders were diagnosed in 49% of children, with autism (25%), attention deficit hyperactivity order (19%) and anxiety (16%) being the most common. Cardiac rhabdomyomata occurred in 35% of children and renal angiomyolipomas were seen in 43%. A total of 91% had skin manifestations. Conclusion: This study outlines the multisystem manifestations of TSC, observed through a large pediatric referral center. Epilepsy and neuropsychiatric disorders are the major source of morbidity in this age group and provide many challenges to the treating clinician. Because a subset of the study population is still quite young, the prevalence of neuropsychiatric disorders is likely underestimated.
Children in Africa are heavily involved in migration but we know too little about the circumstances in which they migrate, their motivations and the impact of migration on their welfare, on wider society and in a global context. This book seeks to retrieve the experiences of child migrants, and to examine how child migration differs from adult migration and whether the condition of childhood pushes individuals towards specific migratory trajectories. It also examines the opportunities that child migrants seek elsewhere, the lack of opportunities that make them move elsewhere and to what extenttheir trajectories and strategies are gendered. Analysing the diversity and complexity of children's experiences of mobility in Ghana, Madagascar, Mali, Nigeria, South Africa, Senegal, Sudan, Togo and Zambia, the authors look at patterns of fosterage, child circulation within Africa and beyond the continent; the role of education, child labour and conceptions of place and "home"; and the place of the child narrator in migrant fiction. Comparing different methodological and theoretical approaches and setting the case studies within the broader context of family migration, transnational families, colonial and postcolonial migration politics, religious encounter and globalization in Africa, this book provides a much-needed examination of this contentious and critical issue.
Elodie Razy is Assistant Professor in Social and Cultural Anthropology at the University of Liege (FaSS). She is the co-founder and co-editor of the online journal AnthropoChildren: Ethnographic Perspectives in Children & Childhood. Marie Rodet is a Senior Lecturer in African History at the School of Oriental and African Studies (University of London). She is currently working on her secondmonograph on slave resistance in Kayes, Mali.