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OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Opioid use disorder (OUD) is a national epidemic and identified as a top priority by the practices and communities in rural Colorado. Until recently, few resources existed to address OUD in rural communities. In addition to training primary care and behavioral health practice teams in medication assisted treatment (MAT), Implementing Technology and Medication Assisted Treatment and Team Training and in Rural Colorado (IT MATTTRs Colorado) engaged local community members to alter the community conversation around OUD and treatment. For IT MATTTRs, the High Plains Research Network and the Colorado Research Network engaged community members in a 8-10 month process known as Boot Camp Translations (BCT) to translate medical information and jargon around OUD and MAT into concepts, messages, and materials that are meaningful and actionable to community members. The resulting community interventions are reported here. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: IT MATTTRs conducted separate BCTs in Eastern Colorado and the south central San Luis Valley. Community partners included non-health professionals with diverse backgrounds, public health and primary care professionals, law enforcement, and others. The BCT process includes a comprehensive education on OUD and MAT and facilitated meetings and calls to develop messages and dissemination strategies. Each BCT lasted around 8-10 months. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The BCT process elicited unique contextual ideas and constructs for messages, materials, and dissemination strategies. Themes common to both BCTs include the prevalence of OUD and that help is available in the local primary care office. Community-tailored messages are distributed through posters and flyer inserts, drink coasters, newspaper articles, letters to local judges, restaurant placemats, and websites. Examples of the materials and messages will be presented. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Local community members are eager to help address the OUD crisis. Built on community-based participatory research principles, BCT can be used to translate complex information and guidelines around OUD and MAT into messages and materials that reflect local culture and community needs.
The present study aimed to: (i) examine associations between food store patronage and diet and weight-related outcomes; and (ii) explore consumer motivations for visiting different types of food store.
A stratified probability sample of residents completed household and individual-level surveys in 2009/2010 on food purchasing patterns and motivations, dietary intake, waist circumference (WC), weight and height. Diet quality was calculated using the Healthy Eating Index for Canada from a subset of participants (n 1362). Generalized estimating equations were created in 2015 to examine how frequency of patronizing different types of food store was associated with diet quality, intake of fruits and vegetable, mean intake of energy (kcal) sodium and saturated fat, WC and BMI.
Three mid-sized urban municipalities in Ontario, Canada.
A representative sample of residents (n 4574).
Participants who shopped frequently at food co-ops had significantly better diet quality (β=5·3; 99 % CI 0·3, 10·2) than those who did not. BMI and WC were significantly lower among those who frequently shopped at specialty shops (BMI, β=−2·1; 99 % CI −3·0, −1·1; WC, β=−4·8; 99 % CI −7·0, −2·5) and farmers’ markets (BMI, β=−1·4; 99 % CI −2·3, −0·5; WC, β=−3·8; 99 % CI −6·0, −1·6) compared with those who did not. Relative importance of reasons for food outlet selection differed by large (price, food quality) v. small (proximity, convenient hours) shopping trip and by outlet type.
Findings contribute to our understanding of food store selection and have implications for potentially relevant retail food intervention settings.
There is growing interest in how enterprises based on co-operative values can help to meet needs relating to welfare and re-energise public services. The objective of this article is to examine critically the intersection of personalised adult social care services and the co-operative tradition, which emphasises mutual aid and value-led enterprise. We do this by retelling the story of personalisation through a co-operative lens, and ground this reading in case studies of two new co-operative enterprises that were supported under a Department of Health programme in England (2006–2009) intended to demonstrate how personalised adult social care could be extended by developing collaborative, co-operative organisational forms.
The present study aimed to determine the in vitro biological efficacy and selectivity of 7 novel AIAs upon bloodstream trypomastigotes and intracellular amastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi. The biological activity of these aromatic compounds was assayed for 48 and 24 h against intracellular parasites and bloodstream forms of T. cruzi (Y strain), respectively. Additional assays were also performed to determine their potential use in blood banks by treating the bloodstream parasites with the compounds diluted in mouse blood for 24 h at 4°C. Toxicity against mammalian cells was evaluated using primary cultures of cardiac cells incubated for 24 and 48 h with the AIAs and then cellular death rates were determined by MTT colorimetric assays. Our data demonstrated the outstanding trypanocidal effect of AIAs against T. cruzi, especially DB1853, DB1862, DB1867 and DB1868, giving IC50 values ranging between 16 and 70 nanomolar against both parasite forms. All AIAs presented superior efficacy to benznidazole and some, such as DB1868, also demonstrated promising activity as a candidate agent for blood prophylaxis. The excellent anti-trypanosomal efficacy of these novel AIAs against T. cruzi stimulates further in vivo studies and justifies the screening of new analogues with the goal of establishing a useful alternative therapy for Chagas disease.
This study examined whether the quality of relationships with foster caregivers was associated with autonomic nervous system reactivity of children during separation and reunion with their foster caregiver. Moreover, effects of early adversity were examined in relation to attachment and autonomic nervous system reactivity. The sample included 60 children between 26 and 88 months of age, who participated with their primary foster caregivers in the Strange Situation. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia and preejection period were measured as indicators of parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system reactivity, respectively. Attachment quality (ordered/disordered and secure/insecure attachment), was coded on the basis of children's behavior in the Strange Situation using the Cassidy and Marvin coding system. Children with a background of neglect and those with disordered (disorganized–controlling or insecure–other) attachment showed most sympathetic reactivity during the procedure. Moreover, children with disordered attachment showed less vagal regulation (respiratory sinus arrhythmia decreases on separation and increases on reunion) than children with ordered attachment. The findings show that the quality of relationships with current caregivers, and to a lesser extent specific experiences of neglect, may have an impact on children's abilities to regulate emotions in the context of environmental stress and challenges.
The radiation-induced agouti allele a1 is recessive to the alleles a and a4H (which resembles ae). It is lethal when homozygous and also in combination with the dominant yellow allele Ay. The ethylnitrosourea induced allele a16H is also lethal when homozygous, and when heterozygous with a shows a phenotype like that of ax, with black back and lighter belly. Like ax it is not lethal with Ay, and it is also not lethal with a1, a1 is believed to be the first recessive allele which is lethal with Ay, and may be useful in elucidating the complexity of the agouti locus.
In 2002, the Chicago Department of Public Health (CDPH; Chicago, Illinois) convened the Chicago-Area Neonatal MRSA Working Group (CANMWG) to discuss and compare approaches aimed at control of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). To better understand these issues on a regional level, the CDPH and the Evanston Department of Health and Human Services (EDHHS; Evanston, Illinois) began an investigation.
Survey to collect demographic, clinical, microbiologic, and epidemiologic data on individual cases and clusters of MRSA infection; an additional survey collected data on infection control practices.
Level III NICUs at Chicago-area hospitals.
Neonates and healthcare workers associated with the level III NICUs.
From June 2001 through September 2002, the participating hospitals reported all clusters of MRSA infection in their respective level III NICUs to the CDPH and the EDHHS.
Thirteen clusters of MRSA infection were detected in level III NICUs, and 149 MRSA-positive infants were reported. Infection control surveys showed that hospitals took different approaches for controlling MRSA colonization and infection in NICUs.
The CANMWG developed recommendations for the prevention and control of MRSA colonization and infection in the NICU and agreed that recommendations should expand to include future data generated by further studies. Continuing partnerships between hospital infection control personnel and public health professionals will be crucial in honing appropriate guidelines for effective approaches to the management and control of MRSA colonization and infection in NICUs.
All children who enter foster care have experienced disruptions in their relationships with caregivers, and many have experienced maltreatment. Studying the effects of these adverse early experiences can inform developmental theory. In particular, insight can be provided regarding sensitive periods in the development of attachment and self-regulatory capabilities. The quality of surrogate caregivers varies as a function of both the intervention services provided and foster parent characteristics. Studying the effects of foster parent quality can suggest which aspects of child functioning are more or less canalized at various developmental periods. This paper considers salient developmental issues of infancy, preschool years, middle childhood, and adolescence and examines ways in which these issues may present special difficulties for foster children. Across development, foster care is associated with difficulties regulating behaviors, emotions, and physiology. Thus, conditions associated with foster care placement (e.g., disruptions in care, maltreatment) appear to affect very basic and fundamental regulatory processes. Interventions have been designed that target developmentally specific manifestations of regulatory difficulties. Although the literature regarding evidence-based interventions for foster parents is quite limited, preliminary findings provide some evidence that nurturing, responsive care can serve to partially remediate early deficits. These findings suggest that stable and nonfrightening care is essential for normal development. Nonetheless, even in the case of quite adverse early experience that results in problematic child outcomes, there is some evidence that the development of many systems remains relatively plastic.
The study of Alzheimer's disease is hampered by insufficient knowledge of its cause. It can best be described as a syndrome whose clinical and pathological features, and their associations over time, need to be more carefully examined. Issues which impede our understanding of this syndrome include the lack of: (a) a singular “gold standard” for its identification; (b) longitudinal studies with appropriate comparison groups and neuropathological follow-up; and (c) standardized multifaceted clinical assessment procedures. Our awareness of the significance of these issues has led us to undertake a large-scale prospective, longitudinal investigation of 399 dementing and normal individuals at Sunnybrook Medical Centre. As a result of problems identified, it is proposed that research efforts across various Canadian centres be coordinated to best utilize available resources and expertise.
The concept of crisis intervention and the various types of services available for dealing with crises affecting the individual or the family have been well set out in the publication from Napsbury Hospital. We would agree with Ratna's statement in that publication that crisis intervention is not only a system of delivering emergency psychiatric care, but also a set of techniques which utilizes a crisis to therapeutic advantage. It was with this in mind that a pilot study was launched in April 1979 for a crisis intervention service in Tunbridge Wells, Kent.