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Considering the important role that paid support workers play in care of older people with dementia, it is vital that researchers and relevant organisations understand the factors that lead to them feeling valued for the work that they do, and the consequences of such valuing (or lack thereof). The current study employed semi-structured interviews to understand the individual experiences of 15 support workers based both in residential care homes and private homes. The General Inductive Approach was used to analyse the interview transcriptions and to develop a conceptual model that describes the conditions that lead to support workers feeling valued for the work that they do. This model consists of organisational or individual strategies, the context in which support work takes place, and various interactions, actions and intervening conditions that facilitate or prevent support workers feeling valued. A significant finding in this research was the role of interpersonal relationships and interactions which underlie all other aspects of the conceptual model developed here. By understanding the importance of how employers, families of older adults with dementia and peers interact with support workers, we may promote not only the quality of work that support workers deliver, but also the wellbeing of the support workers themselves.
For this study, we adapted the Montgomery Borgatta Caregiver Burden Scale, used widely in the United States, to the Saudi Arabian context. To produce an Arabic, culturally sensitive version of the scale, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 20 Saudi family caregivers. The Arabic version of the scale was tested, and participants were asked to comment on the appropriateness of items for the construct of “caregiver burden” using the repertory grid technique and laddering procedure – two constructivist methods derived from personal construct theory. From interview findings, we examined the content of the items and the caregiver burden construct itself. Our findings suggest that the use of constructivist methods to refine constructs and quantitative instruments is highly informative. This strategy is feasible even when little is known about the investigated constructs in the target culture and further elucidates our understanding of cross-cultural variations or invariance of different versions of the scale.
In the fast pace of the Emergency Department (ED), clinicians are in need of tailored screening tools to detect seniors who are at risk of adverse outcomes. We aimed to explore the usefulness of the Bergman-Paris Question (BPQ) to expose potential undetected geriatric syndromes in community-living seniors presenting to the ED.
This is a planned sub-study of the INDEED multicentre prospective cohort study, including independent or semi-independent seniors (≥65 years old) admitted to hospital after an ED stay ≥8 hours and who were not delirious. Patients were assessed using validated screening tests for 3 geriatric syndromes: cognitive and functional impairment, and frailty. The BPQ was asked upon availability of a relative at enrolment. BPQ’s sensitivity and specificity analyses were used to ascertain outcomes.
A response to the BPQ was available for 171 patients (47% of the main study’s cohort). Of this number, 75.4% were positive (suggesting impairment), and 24.6% were negative. To detect one of the three geriatric syndromes, the BPQ had a sensitivity of 85.4% (95% CI [76.3, 92.0]) and a specificity of 35.4% (95% CI [25.1, 46.7]). Similar results were obtained for each separate outcome. Odds ratio demonstrated a higher risk of presence of geriatric syndromes.
The Bergman-Paris Question could be an ED screening tool for possible geriatric syndrome. A positive BPQ should prompt the need of further investigations and a negative BPQ possibly warrants no further action. More research is needed to validate the usefulness of the BPQ for day-to-day geriatric screening by ED professionals or geriatricians.
The consequences of minor trauma involving a head injury (MT-HI) in independent older adults are largely unknown. This study assessed the impact of a head injury on the functional outcomes six months post-injury in older adults who sustained a minor trauma.
This multicenter prospective cohort study in eight sites included patients who were aged 65 years or older, previously independent, presenting to the emergency department (ED) for a minor trauma, and discharged within 48 hours. To assess the functional decline, we used a validated test: the Older Americans’ Resources and Services Scale. The cognitive function of study patients was also evaluated. Finally, we explored the influence of a concomitant injury on the functional decline in the MT-HI group.
All 926 eligible patients were included in the analyses: 344 MT-HI patients and 582 minor trauma without head injury. After six months, the functional decline was similar in both groups: 10.8% and 11.9%, respectively (RR=0.79 [95% CI: 0.55–1.14]). The proportion of patients with mild cognitive disabilities was also similar: 21.7% and 22.8%, respectively (RR=0.91 [95% CI: 0.71–1.18]). Furthermore, for the group of patients with a MT-HI, the functional outcome was not statistically different with or without the presence of a co-injury (RR=1.35 [95% CI: 0.71–2.59]).
This study did not demonstrate that the occurrence of a MT-HI is associated with a worse functional or cognitive prognosis than other minor injuries without a head injury in an elderly population, six months after injury.
The number of pediatric antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) is increasing and program evaluation is a key component to improve efficiency and enhance stewardship strategies.
To determine the antimicrobials and diagnoses most strongly associated with a recommendation provided by a well-established pediatric ASP.
DESIGN AND SETTING
Retrospective cohort study from March 3, 2008, to March 2, 2013, of all ASP reviews performed at a free-standing pediatric hospital.
ASP recommendations were classified as follows: stop therapy, modify therapy, optimize therapy, or consult infectious diseases. A multinomial distribution model to determine the probability of each ASP recommendation category was performed on the basis of the specific antimicrobial agent or disease category. A logistic model was used to determine the odds of recommendation disagreement by the prescribing clinician.
The ASP made 2,317 recommendations: stop therapy (45%), modify therapy (26%), optimize therapy (19%), or consult infectious diseases (10%). Third-generation cephalosporins (0.20) were the antimicrobials with the highest predictive probability of an ASP recommendation whereas linezolid (0.05) had the lowest probability. Community-acquired pneumonia (0.26) was the diagnosis with the highest predictive probability of an ASP recommendation whereas fever/neutropenia (0.04) had the lowest probability. Disagreement with ASP recommendations by the prescribing clinician occurred 22% of the time, most commonly involving community-acquired pneumonia and ear/nose/throat infections.
Evaluation of our pediatric ASP identified specific clinical diagnoses and antimicrobials associated with an increased likelihood of an ASP recommendation. Focused interventions targeting these high-yield areas may result in increased program efficiency and efficacy.
The real-time electronic performance of a gallium nitride nanowire-based field effect transistor was investigated at five-minute intervals over thirty minutes of continuous irradiation by Xenon-124 relativistic heavy ions. An initial current surge that resulted in device improvement rather than device failure was observed. The current surge, and subsequent electronic behavior, was modeled using a combined thermionic emission-tunnelling approach, leading to information about barrier height, carrier concentrations, expected temperature behavior, and tunnelling.
Prepared ready-to-eat salads and ready-to-eat delicatessen-style meats present a high risk for Listeria contamination. Because no foodborne illness risk management guidelines exist specifically for US hospitals, a survey of New York City (NYC) hospitals was conducted to characterize policies and practices after a listeriosis outbreak occurred in a NYC hospital.
From August through October 2008, a listeriosis outbreak in a NYC hospital was investigated. From February through April 2009, NYC's 61 acute-care hospitals were asked to participate in a telephone survey regarding food safety practices and policies, specifically service of high-risk foods to patients at increased risk for listeriosis.
Five patients with medical conditions that put them at high risk for listeriosis had laboratory-confirmed Listeria monocytogenes infection. The Listeria outbreak strain was isolated from tuna salad prepared in the hospital. Fifty-four (89%) of 61 hospitals responded to the survey. Overall, 81% of respondents reported serving ready-to-eat deli meats to patients, and 100% reported serving prepared ready-to-eat salads. Pregnant women, patients receiving immunosuppressive drugs, and patients undergoing chemotherapy were served ready-to-eat deli meats at 77%, 59%, and 49% of hospitals, respectively, and were served prepared ready-to-eat salads at 94%, 89%, and 73% of hospitals, respectively. Only 4 (25%) of 16 respondents reported having a policy that ready-to-eat deli meats must be heated until steaming hot before serving.
Despite the potential for severe outcomes of Listeria infection among hospitalized patients, the majority of NYC hospitals had no food preparation policies to minimize risk. Hospitals should implement policies to avoid serving high-risk foods to patients at risk for listeriosis.
To assess critically the scope for public health nutrition taxation within the framework of the global tax reform agenda.
Review of the tax policy literature for global policy priorities relevant to public health nutrition taxation; critical analysis of proposals for public health nutrition taxation judged against the global agenda for tax reform.
The global tax reform agenda shapes decisions of tax policy makers in all countries. By understanding this agenda, public health nutritionists can make feasible taxation proposals and thus improve the development, uptake and implementation of recommendations for nutrition-related taxation.
The priorities of the global tax reform agenda relevant to public health nutrition taxation are streamlining of taxes, adoption of value-added tax (VAT), minimisation of excise taxes (except to correct for externalities) and removal of import taxes in line with trade liberalisation policies. Proposals consistent with the global tax reform agenda have included excise taxes, extension of VAT to currently exempted (unhealthy) foods and tariff reductions for healthy foods.
Proposals for public health nutrition taxation should (i) use existing types and rates of taxes where possible, (ii) use excise taxes that specifically address externalities, (iii) avoid differential VAT on foods and (iv) use import taxes in ways that comply with trade liberalisation priorities.
To evaluate the relationship between Staphylococcus aureus nasal and tracheal colonization and infection in medical intensive care unit (MICU) patients. The primary outcome was the incidence of S. aureus infection in colonized versus non-colonized patients.
Prospective, observational cohort study. Patients admitted to the MICU during the study period were screened for S. aureus nasal and tracheal colonization by culture and a PCR assay twice weekly. Demographic, clinical, and microbiologic data were collected in the MICU and for 30 days after discharge. PFGE and antibiotic susceptibility testing were performed on all S. aureus nasal, tracheal, and clinical isolates.
Twenty-three percent of patients (47 of 208) were nasally colonized with S. aureus. Twenty-four percent of these patients developed S. aureus infections versus 2% of noncolonized patients (P < .01). Nine of 11 patients with both nasal colonization and infection were infected by their colonizing strain. Two of 47 nasally colonized patients developed an infection with a different strain of S. aureus. Fifty-three percent of intubated patients with nasal colonization (10 of 19) had tracheal colonization with S. aureus as opposed to 4.9% of intubated, non-colonized patients (3 of 61) (P < .01). Parenteral antibiotics were ineffective at clearing nasal colonization. PCR detected S. aureus colonization (nasal and tracheal) within 6.5 hours with a sensitivity of 83% and a specificity of 99%.
The incidence of S. aureusinfection was significantly elevated in nasally colonized MICU patients. Techniques to rapidly detect colonization in this population may make targeted topical prevention strategies feasible. (Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2005;26:622-628)
The symptoms and signs associated with all stages of a temporal lobe seizure may be helpful in determining both the localization and lateralization of seizure onset. Auras, when present, may be very suggestive of temporal lobe onset and may further localize to a mesiobasal or lateral temporal lobe site of onset. During the ictus, automatisms and motor phenomena may be highly indicative of temporal lobe seizure activity and may even help lateralize the discharge. In the post-ictal period, motor paresis and aphasia are helpful in lateralization. Video E.E.G. data has provided extensive information on the utility of ictal symptomatology in seizure localization. Thus, the seizure semiology provides important adjunctive information in evaluating patients for epilepsy surgery and should be concordant with information obtained from ictal EEG, neuroimaging and neuropsychology.
Distressing mental imagery is hard to study experimentally in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD).
To develop a way to assess mental imagery in OCD during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).
A small randomised study, controlled for type and order of mental imagery and for treatment condition (exposure therapy guided by a computer or by a therapist, or relaxation guided by audio-tape). Before and after treatment, during fMRI scanning, patients imagined previously-rehearsed scenarios that evoked an urge to ritualise or non-OCD anxiety or a neutral state, and rated their discomfort during imagery.
The method evoked greater discomfort during OCD imagery and anxiety (non-OCD) imagery than during neutral imagery. Discomfort was reduced by cancelling imagery. Discomfort during OCD imagery (but not during anxiety non-OCD imagery) fell after exposure therapy but not after relaxation.
Results showed differences between OCD and non-OCD images and their change after successful treatment, and confirmed clinical suggestions that cancelling images reduced OCD discomfort. The method's success paves the way for further studies of mental imagery in OCD: for instance, during fMRI.
To compare the microbial contamination rate of infusate in the intravenous tubing of newborns receiving lipid therapy, replacing the intravenous delivery system at 72-hour versus 24-hour intervals.
Infants requiring intravenous lipid therapy were randomly assigned to have intravenous sets changed on a 72- or a 24-hour schedule, in a 3:1 ratio, in order to compare the infusate contamination rates in an equivalent number of tubing sets.
A 35-bed, teaching, referral, neonatal intensive-care unit (NICU).
All neonates admitted to the NICU for whom intravenous lipid was ordered.
Patients were randomized in pharmacy, on receipt of the order for intravenous lipid therapy, to either 72- or 24-hour administration set changes, and followed until 1 week after discontinuation of lipids or discharge from the NICU. Microbial contamination of the infusate was assessed in both groups at the time of administration set changes. Contamination rates were analyzed separately for the lipid and amino acid-glucose tubing sets. Patient charts were reviewed for clinical and epidemiological data, including birth weight, gestational age, gender, age at start of lipid therapy, duration of parenteral nutrition, and type of intravenous access.
During the study period, 1,101 and 1,112 sets were sampled in the 72- and 24-hour groups, respectively. Microbial contamination rates were higher in die 72-hour group than the 24-hour group for lipid infusions (39/1,101 [3.54%] vs 15/1,112 [1.35%]; P=.001) and for amino acid infusions (12/1,093 [1.10%] vs 4/1,103 [0.36%]; P=.076). Logistic regression analysis controlling for birth weight, gestational age, and type of venous access showed that only the tubing change interval was significanfly associated with lipid set contaminations (odds ratio, 2.69; P=.0013). The rate of blood cultures ordered was higher in die 72-versus the 24-hour group (6.11 vs 4.99 per 100 patient days of total parenteral nutrition; P=.017), and a higher proportion of infants randomized to the 72-hour group died (8% vs 4%; P=.05), although the excess deaths could not clearly be attributed to bacteremia.
Microbial contamination of infusion sets is significantiy more frequent with 72- than witii 24-hour set changes in neonates receiving lipid solutions. This may be associated with an increased mortality rate.