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To determine risk factors independent of length of stay (LOS) for Staphylococcus aureus acquisition in infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).
Retrospective matched case–case-control study.
Quaternary-care referral NICU at a large academic children’s hospital.
Infants admitted between January 2014 and March 2016 at a level IV NICU who acquired methicillin resistant (MRSA) or susceptible (MSSA) S. aureus were matched with controls by duration of exposure to determine risk factors for acquisition. A secondary post hoc analysis was performed on the entire cohort of at-risk infants for risk factors identified in the primary analysis to further quantify risk.
In total, 1,751 infants were admitted during the study period with 199 infants identified as having S. aureus prevalent on admission. There were 246 incident S. aureus acquisitions in the remaining at-risk infant cohort. On matched analysis, infants housed in a single-bed unit were associated with a significantly decreased risk of both MRSA (P=.03) and MSSA (P=.01) acquisition compared with infants housed in multibed pods. Across the entire cohort, pooled S. aureus acquisition was significantly lower in infants housed in single-bed units (hazard ratio,=0.46; confidence interval, 0.34–0.62).
NICU bed design is significantly associated with S. aureus acquisition in hospitalized infants independent of LOS.
To identify risk factors associated with surgical site infection (SSI) after pediatric posterior spinal fusion procedure by examining characteristics related to the patient, the surgical procedure, and tissue hypoxia.
Retrospective case-control study nested in a hospital cohort study.
A 475-bed, tertiary care children's hospital.
All patients who underwent a spinal fusion procedure during the period from January 1995 through December 2006 were included. SSI cases were identified by means of prospective surveillance using National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance system definitions. Forty-four case patients who underwent a posterior spinal fusion procedure and developed an SSI were identified and evaluated. Each case patient was matched (on the basis of date of surgery, ± 3 months) to 3 control patients who underwent a posterior spinal fusion procedure but did not develop an SSI. Risk factors for SSI were evaluated by univariate analysis and multivariable conditional logistic regression. Odds ratios (ORs), with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and P values, were calculated.
From 1995 to 2006, the mean annual rate of SSI after posterior spinal fusion procedure was 4.4% (range, 1.1%—6.7%). Significant risk factors associated with SSI in the univariate analysis included the following: a body mass index (BMI) greater than the 95th percentile (OR, 3.5 [95% CI, 1.5–8.3]); antibiotic prophylaxis with clindamycin, compared with other antibiotics (OR, 3.5 [95% CI, 1.2 10.0]); inappropriately low dose of antibiotic (OR, 2.6 [95% CI, 1.0–6.6]); and a longer duration of hypothermia (ie, a core body temperature of less than 35.5°C) during surgery (OR, 0.4 [95% CI, 0.2–0.9]). An American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score of greater than 2, obesity (ie, a BMI greater than the 95th percentile), antibiotic prophylaxis with clindamycin, and hypothermia were statistically significant in the multivariable model.
An ASA score greater than 2, obesity, and antibiotic prophylaxis with clindamycin were independent risk factors for SSI. Hypothermia during surgery appears to provide protection against SSI in this patient population.
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