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The SKA and its pathfinders will enable studies of H i emission at higher redshifts than ever before. In moving beyond the local Universe, this will require the use of cosmologically appropriate formulae that have traditionally been simplified to their low-redshift approximations. In this paper, we summarise some of the most important relations for tracing H i emission in the SKA era, and present an online calculator to assist in the planning and analysis of observations (http://hifi.icrar.org).
Parties and politicians want their messages to generate media coverage and thereby reach voters. This article examines how attributes related to content and sender affect whether party messages are likely to get media attention. Based on content analyses of 1,613 party press releases and 6,512 media reports in a parliamentary, multiparty context, we suggest that party messages are more likely to make it into the news if they address concerns that are already important to the media or other parties. Discussing these issues may particularly help opposition parties and lower-profile politicians get media attention. These results confirm the importance of agenda setting and gatekeeping, shed light on the potential success of party strategies, and have implications for political fairness and representation.
The HI Parkes All Sky Survey (HIPASS) offers a unique perspective on the galaxy population in the local universe. A catalogue of 4315 HI-selected galaxies has been extracted from the southern region of the survey (δ < +2°). This catalogue gives a clear view of the local large-scale structure and is used to study the two-point correlation function, the Tully-Fisher relation, and galaxy luminosity and mass functions. Some initial results are discussed here.
The subglacial hydrologic system exerts strong controls on the dynamics of the overlying ice, yet the parameters that govern the evolution of this system are not widely known or observable. To gain a better understanding of these parameters, we invert a spatially averaged model of subglacial hydrology from observations of ice surface velocity and outlet stream discharge at Kennicott Glacier, Wrangell Mountains, AK, USA. To identify independent parameters, we formally non-dimensionalize the forward model. After specifying suitable prior distributions, we use a Markov-chain Monte Carlo algorithm to sample from the distribution of parameter values conditioned on the available data. This procedure gives us not only the most probable parameter values, but also a rigorous estimate of their covariance structure. We find that the opening of cavities due to sliding over basal topography and turbulent melting are of a similar magnitude during periods of large input flux, though turbulent melting also exhibits the greatest uncertainty. We also find that both the storage of water in the englacial system and the exchange of water between englacial and subglacial systems are necessary in order to explain both surface velocity observations and the relative attenuation in the amplitude of diurnal signals between input and output flux observations.
The Tully-Fisher relation is of interest because of its use as a secondary distance measure and the constraints it places on the physics of rotationally supported galaxies. We use data from the HI Parkes All-Sky Survey Catalogue to study and apply the Tully-Fisher relation on a sample of galaxies selected on their HI properties. the issues of third parameter dependencies and intrinsic scatter of the Tully-Fisher relation are investigated.
Dementia is a chronic and currently incurable syndrome. Therefore, quality of life (QoL) is a major goal when caring for people with dementia (Gibson et al., 2010) and a major outcome in dementia research (Moniz-Cook et al., 2008). The measurement of QoL, especially proxy-rating, is challenging because of the proxy-perspective (Pickard and Knight, 2005), reliability (Dichter et al., 2016), validity (O'Rourke et al., 2015), and responsiveness (Perales et al., 2013). Probably due to these challenges, it has not been possible to show positive effects for QoL in almost all non-pharmacological interventions for people with dementia (Cooper et al., 2012). One recommended (Moniz-Cook et al., 2008) and frequently used instrument is the Quality of Life in Alzheimer's Disease scale (QoL-AD), which was originally developed in the US for community-dwelling people with dementia. The QoL-AD consists of 13 items based on a 4-point Likert scale ranging from “1”=poor to “4”=excellent (Logsdon et al., 1999). The original instrument has been adapted for people living in nursing homes (NH) by Edelmann et al. (2005).
Patients with borderline personality disorder frequently show non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). In these patients, NSSI often serves to reduce high levels of stress.
Investigation of neurobiological mechanisms of NSSI in borderline personality disorder
In total, 21 women with borderline personality disorder and 17 healthy controls underwent a stress induction, followed by either an incision into the forearm or a sham treatment. Afterwards participants underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging while aversive tension, heart rate and heart rate variability were assessed.
We found a significant influence of incision on subjective and objective stress levels with a stronger decrease of aversive tension in the borderline personality disorder group following incision than sham. Amygdala activity decreased more and functional connectivity with superior frontal gyrus normalised after incision in the borderline personality disorder group.
Decreased stress levels and amygdala activity after incision support the assumption of an influence of NSSI on emotion regulation in individuals with borderline personality disorder and aids in understanding why these patients use self-inflicted pain to reduce inner tension.
The number of beds in care homes (with and without nurses) in the United Kingdom is three times greater than the number of beds in National Health Service (NHS) hospitals. Care homes are predominantly owned by a range of commercial, not-for-profit or charitable providers and their residents have high levels of disability, frailty and co-morbidity. NHS support for care home residents is very variable, and it is unclear what models of clinical support work and are cost-effective.
To critically evaluate how the NHS works with care homes.
A review of surveys of NHS services provided to care homes that had been completed since 2008. It included published national surveys, local surveys commissioned by Primary Care organisations, studies from charities and academic centres, grey literature identified across the nine government regions, and information from care home, primary care and other research networks. Data extraction captured forms of NHS service provision for care homes in England in terms of frequency, location, focus and purpose.
Five surveys focused primarily on general practitioner services, and 10 on specialist services to care home. Working relationships between the NHS and care homes lack structure and purpose and have generally evolved locally. There are wide variations in provision of both generalist and specialist healthcare services to care homes. Larger care home chains may take a systematic approach to both organising access to NHS generalist and specialist services, and to supplementing gaps with in-house provision. Access to dental care for care home residents appears to be particularly deficient.
Historical differences in innovation and provision of NHS services, the complexities of collaborating across different sectors (private and public, health and social care, general and mental health), and variable levels of organisation of care homes, all lead to persistent and embedded inequity in the distribution of NHS resources to this population. Clinical commissioners seeking to improve the quality of care of care home residents need to consider how best to provide fair access to health care for older people living in a care home, and to establish a specification for service delivery to this vulnerable population.
Producing high purity aluminum nitride crystals by the sublimation-recondensation technique is difficult due to the inherently reactive crystal growth environment, normally at temperature in excess of 2100 °C. The durability of the furnace fixture materials (crucibles, retorts, etc.) at such a high temperature remains a critical problem. In the present study, the suitability of several refractory materials for AlN crystal growth is investigated, including tantalum carbide, niobium carbide, tungsten, graphite, and hot-pressed boron nitride. The thermal and chemical properties and performance of these materials in inert gas, as well as under AlN crystal growth conditions are discussed. TaC and NbC are the most stable crucible materials with very low elemental vapor pressures in the crystal growth system. Compared with refractory material coated graphite crucibles, HPBN crucible is better for AlN self-seeded growth, as crystals tend to nucleate in thin colorless platelets with low dislocation density.
Quality of life (Qol) is an increasingly used outcome measure in dementia research. The QUALIDEM is a dementia-specific and proxy-rated Qol instrument. We aimed to determine the inter-rater and intra-rater reliability in residents with dementia in German nursing homes.
The QUALIDEM consists of nine subscales that were applied to a sample of 108 people with mild to severe dementia and six consecutive subscales that were applied to a sample of 53 people with very severe dementia. The proxy raters were 49 registered nurses and nursing assistants. Inter-rater and intra-rater reliability scores were calculated on the subscale and item level.
None of the QUALIDEM subscales showed strong inter-rater reliability based on the single-measure Intra-Class Correlation Coefficient (ICC) for absolute agreement ≥ 0.70. Based on the average-measure ICC for four raters, eight subscales for people with mild to severe dementia (care relationship, positive affect, negative affect, restless tense behavior, social relations, social isolation, feeling at home and having something to do) and five subscales for very severe dementia (care relationship, negative affect, restless tense behavior, social relations and social isolation) yielded a strong inter-rater agreement (ICC: 0.72–0.86). All of the QUALIDEM subscales, regardless of dementia severity, showed strong intra-rater agreement. The ICC values ranged between 0.70 and 0.79 for people with mild to severe dementia and between 0.75 and 0.87 for people with very severe dementia.
This study demonstrated insufficient inter-rater reliability and sufficient intra-rater reliability for all subscales of both versions of the German QUALIDEM. The degree of inter-rater reliability can be improved by collaborative Qol rating by more than one nurse. The development of a measurement manual with accurate item definitions and a standardized education program for proxy raters is recommended.