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We aimed to assess the validity of maternal recall of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) at 3 months obtained 12 months after childbirth.
A population-based birth cohort study. The gold standard is maternal report of EBF at the age of 3 months (yes or no) and age of introduction of other foods in the infant’s diet. EBF was considered when the mother reported that no liquid, semi-solid or solid food was introduced up to that moment. The variable to be validated was obtained at 12 months after childbirth when the mother was asked about the age of food introduction. The prevalence of EBF at 3 months, and sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV), and accuracy of 12-month recall with 95 % CI were calculated.
3700 mothers of participants of the Pelotas 2004 Birth Cohort.
The prevalence of EBF at 3 months was 27·8 % (95 % CI 26·4, 29·3) and 49·0 % (95 % CI 47·4, 50·6) according to gold standard and maternal recall, respectively. The sensitivity of maternal recall at 12 months was 98·3 % (95 % CI 97·4, 99·0), specificity 70·0 % (95 % CI 68·2, 71·7), PPV 55·8 % (95 % CI 53·4, 58·1), NPV 99·1 % (95 % CI 98·6, 99·5) and accuracy 77·9 % (95 % CI 76·6, 79·2). When the analyses were stratified by maternal and infant characteristics, the sensitivity remained around 98 %, and the specificity ranged from 64·4 to 81·8 %.
EBF recalled at the end of the first year of infant’s life is a valid measure to be used in epidemiological investigations.
Thrombocytopenia is a risk factor for patent ductus arteriosus. Immature and mature platelets exhibit distinct haemostatic properties; however, whether platelet maturity plays a role in postnatal, ductus arteriosus closure is unknown.
In this observational study, counts of immature and mature platelets (=total platelet count − immature platelet count) were assessed on days 1, 3, and 7 of life in very low birth weight infants (<1500 g birth weight). We performed echocardiographic screening for haemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus on day 7.
Counts of mature platelets did not differ on day 1 in infants with (n = 24) and without (n = 45) haemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus, while infants with significant patent ductus arteriosus exhibited lower counts of mature platelet on postnatal days 3 and 7. Relative counts of immature platelets (fraction, in %) were higher in infants with patent ductus arteriosus on day 7 but not on days 1 and 3. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis unraveled associations between both lower mature platelet counts and higher immature platelet fraction (percentage) values on days 3 and 7, with haemodynamically significant ductus arteriosus. Logistic regression analysis revealed that mature platelet counts, but not immature platelet fraction values, were independent predictors of haemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus.
During the first week of postnatal life, lower counts of mature platelets and higher immature platelet fraction values are associated with haemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus. Lower counts of mature platelet were found to be independent predictors of haemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus.
Subclinical (SCK) and clinical (CK) ketosis are metabolic disorders responsible for big losses in dairy production. Although Fourier-transform mid-infrared spectrometry (FTIR) to predict ketosis in cows exposed to great metabolic stress was studied extensively, little is known about its suitability in predicting hyperketonemia using individual samples, e.g. in small dairy herds or when only few animals are at risk of ketosis. The objective of the present research was to determine the applicability of milk metabolites predicted by FTIR spectrometry in the individual screening for ketosis. In experiment 1, blood and milk samples were taken every two weeks after calving from Holstein (n = 80), Brown Swiss (n = 72) and Swiss Fleckvieh (n = 58) cows. In experiment 2, cows diagnosed with CK (n = 474) and 420 samples with blood β-hydroxybutyrate [BHB] <1.0 mmol/l were used to investigate if CK could be detected by FTIR-predicted BHB and acetone from a preceding milk control. In experiment 3, correlations between data from an in farm automatic milk analyser and FTIR-predicted BHB and acetone from the monthly milk controls were evaluated. Hyperketonemia occurred in majority during the first eight weeks of lactation. Correlations between blood BHB and FTIR-predicted BHB and acetone were low (r = 0.37 and 0.12, respectively, P < 0.0001), as well as the percentage of true positive values (11.9 and 16.6%, respectively). No association of FTIR predicted ketone bodies with the interval of milk sampling relative to CK diagnosis was found. Data obtained from the automatic milk analyser were moderately correlated with the same day FTIR-predicted BHB analysis (r = 0.61). In conclusion, the low correlations with blood BHB and the small number of true positive samples discourage the use of milk mid-infrared spectrometry analyses as the only method to predict hyperketonemia at the individual cow level.
Empirical data on the use of services due to mental health problems in older adults in Europe is lacking. The objective of this study is to identify factors associated with service utilization in the elderly.
As part of the MentDis_ICF65+ study, N = 3,142 people aged 65–84 living in the community in six European and associated countries were interviewed. Based on Andersen's behavioral model predisposing, enabling, and need factors were analyzed with logistic regression analyses.
Overall, 7% of elderly and 11% of those with a mental disorder had used a service due to mental health problems in the last 12 months. Factors significantly associated with underuse were male sex, lower education, living in the London catchment area, higher functional impairment and more comorbid mental disorders. The most frequently reported barrier to service use was personal beliefs, e.g. “I can deal with my problem on my own” (90%).
Underutilization of mental health services among older people in the European community is common and interventions are needed to achieve an adequate use of services.
Jim George, Senior Lecturer in International Relations in the School of Politics and International Relations at the Australian National University,
Richard Devetak, Associate Professor in International Relations in the School of Political Science and International Studies at the University of Queensland,
Martin Weber, Senior Lecturer in the School of Political Science and International Studies at the University of Queensland
This chapter introduces students to the rich and controversial legacy of Marxism and one of its major offshoots in the twentieth century, critical theory. The chapter is presented in two parts. The first touches on the historical and intellectual context that ‘created’ Marxism; Marx's notion of historical materialism and the issue of how Marx's ideas have been received in IR. The second part concentrates on the two strands of critical theory that have emerged within IR: one derived from the so-called Frankfurt School and the other from Italian thinker Antonio Gramsci.
Historical and intellectual context: Marx and the critique of capitalism
During the nineteenth century, European societies underwent dramatic and sometimes traumatic changes internally while expanding their colonial rule to almost every corner of the world. Importantly, this expansion of European imperialism and the global consolidation of what is often referred to as the ‘Westphalian states-system’ occurred simultaneously with the comprehensive shift to industrialised production (known as the Industrial Revolution), significant changes in the ownership and control of property and large-scale population transfers, both internally and externally towards parts of the colonised world. By the nineteenth century economic affairs were also changing significantly, with the gradual demise of mercantilism and the rise of capitalism. Victorian Britain (England, specifically) had emerged as the hotbed of these developments, with its extraordinary innovations in industrial production and technology, and in the capitalist production process. It also provided many of the conceptual principles for understanding and legitimising the socio-economic transformations inaugurated by capitalism.
At the intellectuall core of this major historical transformation were philosophers such as Adam Smith (1723–90) in the eighteenth century and David Ricardo (1772– 1823) in the nineteenth century, who helped develop what became known as the liberal ‘political economy’. An outgrowth of moral philosophy, this field of inquiry was concerned primarily with the political and economic conditions of social change. It also became the basis for the discipline of (neoclassical) economics.
The new political economists advanced more stringent conceptions of ‘efficiency’ under capitalism. Arguing against the accumulated wealth and land ownership of the traditional aristocracy, they insisted wealth must be circulated and invested across the whole society. In this regard, they were advocates for an ‘entrepreneurial’ shift from subsistence economies to industrial production, and for social progress guided by scientific reason.
Some time ago, we reported the synthesis of bixbyite-type V2O3, a new metastable polymorph of vanadium sesquioxide. Since, a number of investigations followed, dealing with different aspects like electronic and magnetic properties of the material, the deviation from ideal stoichiometry or the preparation of nanocrystals as oxygen storage material. However, most of the physical properties were only evaluated on a theoretical basis. Here, we report the lattice dynamics and physical properties of bixbyite-type V2O3 bulk material, which we acquired from physical property measurements and neutron diffraction experiments over a wide temperature range. Besides attributing different possible orientations of the magnetic moments for V1 and V2 to the identified antiferromagnetic (AFM) ground state with a Néel temperature of 38.1(5) K, we use a first order Grüneisen approximation to determine lattice-dependent parameters for the relatively stiff cubic lattice, and, amongst others identify the Debye temperature to be as low as 350 ± 65 K.
Except for dementia and depression, little is known about common mental disorders in elderly people.
To estimate current, 12-month and lifetime prevalence rates of mental disorders in different European and associated countries using a standardised diagnostic interview adapted to measure the cognitive needs of elderly people.
The MentDis_ICF65+ study is based on an age-stratified, random sample of 3142 older men and women (65–84 years) living in selected catchment community areas of participating countries.
One in two individuals had experienced a mental disorder in their lifetime, one in three within the past year and nearly one in four currently had a mental disorder. The most prevalent disorders were anxiety disorders, followed by affective and substance-related disorders.
Compared with previous studies we found substantially higher prevalence rates for most mental disorders. These findings underscore the need for improving diagnostic assessments adapted to the cognitive capacity of elderly people. There is a need to raise awareness of psychosocial problems in elderly people and to deliver high-quality mental health services to these individuals.
The emergence of social theory is closely linked to the transformations inaugurated by the rise of a distinctly capitalist modernity from the second half of the eighteenth century onwards. In this article, I reconstruct the outlines of two strands of social theorising that emerged in response to the radical challenges posed by ‘the great transformation’ on the one hand, and the French Revolution on the other. I juxtapose two responses to the transnational constellations these events signify, one heralded by Auguste Comte, and the other, inter alia, by Karl Marx. While the Comtean frame obliterates meaningful registers of thinking about political transformation, I argue that conflict-theoretic tradition indebted to G. W. F. Hegel and Marx is much more amenable to analytical and practical concerns with responding politically to the challenges posed by ‘the rise of the social’. In the final part, this is discussed with reference to the ‘social turn’ in IR theory.
Si is a promising anode material for Li storage due to its high theoretical specific capacity surpassing 4200 Ah/kg. Si based anodes exhibit an extreme instability upon electrochemical incorporation of Li given the accompanied large volume expansion of about 400%. We show innovative anode assemblies composed of a forest of free standing Si nanowires conformally integrated on carbon meshes. The morphology of silicon nanowires allows a volume expansion and compression lowering strain incorporation. In this paper, we demonstrate the utilization of SiNW grown on top of a current collector made of a carbon fiber network. This leads to an increase of stability of Si with a remaining effective capacitance above 2000 Ah/kg(Si) after 225 full charge/discharge cycles. This is significantly better compared to previous results shown in literature. The anodes are fabricated by a simple and inexpensive method promising for a transfer into industrial integration.
Two compact H-band (220–325 GHz) low-noise millimeter-wave monolithic integrated circuit (MMIC) amplifiers have been developed, based on a grounded coplanar waveguide (GCPW) technology utilizing 50 and 35 nm metamorphic high electron mobility transistors (mHEMTs). For low-loss packaging of the circuits, a set of waveguide-to-microstrip transitions has been realized on 50-μm-thick GaAs substrates demonstrating an insertion loss of <0.5 dB at 243 GHz. By applying the 50 nm gate-length process, a four-stage cascode amplifier module achieved a small-signal gain of 30.6 dB at 243 GHz and more than 28 dB in the bandwidth from 218 to 280 GHz. A second amplifier module, based on the 35-nm mHEMT technology, demonstrated a considerably improved gain of 34.6 dB at 243 GHz and more than 32 dB between 210 and 280 GHz. At the operating frequency, the two broadband low-noise amplifier modules achieved a room temperature noise figure of 5.6 dB (50 nm) and 5.0 dB (35 nm), respectively.
To explore and document the needs of family caregivers of patients dying with dementia and to identify how healthcare professionals can adequately support them.
We employed a cross-sectional survey containing open-ended questions that were analyzed using qualitative methods.
Receiving information about the diagnosis and disease trajectory of dementia is essential for the caregiving families of people dying with the disease. However, at present the communication of information offered by professionals is not experienced as satisfying. Further aspects that require improvement concern issues related to time constraints, as well as practical and emotional support from professionals in the care setting. Family members would also like professionals to better assist them during and after the dying process.
Significance of Results:
Family members face multiple burdens while caring for their demented relatives and need more professional support during the course of the disease trajectory as well as in the terminal phase.