The anterior interosseous neuropathy is a rare focal neuropathy with typical clinical and electromyographic features. Most commonly reported etiologies include lesion of the median nerve following fracture of the radius and ulna, acute or repeated trauma or prolonged pressure on the forearm. In some cases, no predisposing factors can be elicited. Over a one-year period, two young women in their late twenties were evaluated for weakness of the flexor pollicis longus, flexor digitorum profundus of the 2nd and 3rd fingers, and pronator quadratus muscles that occurred within a month following parturition. Nerve conduction studies and concentric needle electrode examination of the upper extremities performed respectively 3 and 10 months after the onset of symptoms confirmed a severe anterior interosseous neuropathy and excluded more common conditions such as carpal tunnel syndrome, cervical radiculopathy or brachial plexopathy. The prognosis was unfavorable in both cases.