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This introductory chapter by the editor discusses the goals of the book, introduces the questions central to it as well as develops a methodological framework. It relates to existing scholarship on the impact of human rights law upon other branches of international law and on the fragmentation of international law. It outlines the methodology that was applied in working towards this volume by presenting a range of distinctions that provide conceptual tools for detecting and assessing the different ways how international non-human-rights courts may refer to human rights. These include categories of human rights, sources of human rights norms, and three contexts for their application, namely due process rights applied in the proceedings of the court in question, substantive human rights norms as applicable law or basis for subject-matter jurisdiction, and interpretive reliance on human rights through systemic integration. The chapter also relates to the legitimacy of international courts by showing that how international courts relate to human rights norms matters for factors of legitimacy.
In the concluding chapter, the editor engages in a comparative and theory-building exercise across the jurisdictions covered in the book. There are important differences between international non-human-rights courts as to the legal basis for their application of human rights norms. While due process rights of the parties appearing before it, and systemic integration, are available for all courts, there are marked differences in issues such as standing by individuals, the status of human rights norms as applicable substantive law or basis for jurisdiction, and the patterns concerning which categories of human rights have made their way into other international courts. There are also clear examples of ‘other’ courts widening the scope of justiciable human rights, for instance through applying economic, social and cultural rights, or the right to property, or collective rights of peoples beyond the practice of actual human rights courts. In their application of human rights norms, 'other' international courts have at least so far tended to do so reflecting more the trend of humanisation, rather than constitutionalisation, of international law.
This unique book examines the role and impact of human rights norms in international courts other than human rights courts. It covers a whole range of courts and jurisdictions, looking at the practice of prominent international courts, such as the International Court of Justice and the International Criminal Court, as well as various fora of economic adjudication, including the World Trade Organisation, regional integration organisations in Europe and Africa, and investment arbitration. The book systematically explores the role of human rights norms at the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, thereby providing an insight into the future evolution of environmental law towards judicial enforcement at the international level. Within each jurisdiction under study, the respective authors, who all are experts within their fields, address the role of different categories of human rights, as well as the range of available modes of operation of human rights norms.
The rise of globalization and the persistence of global poverty are straining the territorial paradigm of human rights. This book asks if states possess extraterritorial obligations under existing international human rights law to respect and ensure economic, social and cultural rights and how far those duties extend. Taking a departure point in theory and practice, the book is the first of its kind to analyze the principal cross-cutting legal issues at stake: the legal status of obligations, jurisdiction, causation, division of responsibility, and remedies and accountability. The book focuses specifically on the role of states but also addresses their duties to regulate powerful nonstate actors. The authors demonstrate that many key issues have been resolved or clarified in international law while others remain controversial or await the development of further practice, particularly the scope of jurisdiction and the quantitative dimension of extraterritorial obligations to fulfil.