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A customized-built high-temperature tensile creep setup is introduced. Dog-bone shaped miniaturized specimens made from Nimonic-75 were tested as reference materials at temperatures of 850 and 1000 °C under constant load to verify the setup’s accuracy. The results were compared to tensile creep tests with conventional (standard size) specimens at identical experimental conditions. The shape of the creep curves obtained in the miniaturized specimens exhibits a pronounced minimum creep rate, thus, being seemingly different from the ones obtained for the bulk samples which reveal a clear steady-state regime. This is partly due to the continuous increase of stress under constant load testing conditions and very likely affected by the much higher surface to volume ratio of the miniaturized specimens leading to the premature onset of tertiary creep. Still, a good agreement was obtained between the two specimen sizes with respect to the dependence of the steady-state (standard size) and minimum (miniaturized size) strain rate on applied stress at various temperatures leading to also comparable activation energies of the creep.
The extraction of foreground and CMB maps from multi-frequency observations relies mostly on the different frequency behavior of the different components. Existing Bayesian methods additionally make use of a Gaussian prior for the CMB whose correlation structure is described by an unknown angular power spectrum. We argue for the natural extension of this by using non-trivial priors also for the foreground components. Focusing on diffuse Galactic foregrounds, we propose a log-normal model including unknown spatial correlations within each component and cross-correlations between the different foreground components. We present case studies at low resolution that demonstrate the superior performance of this model when compared to an analysis with flat priors for all components.
This paper presents the design and implementation of power amplifiers using high-power gallium nitride (GaN) high electronic mobility transistor (HEMT) powerbars and monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs). The first amplifier is a class AB implementation for worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX) applications with emphasis on a low temperature cofired ceramics (LTCC) packaging solution. The second amplifier is a class S power amplifier using a high power GaN HEMT MMIC. For a 450 MHz continuous wave (CW) signal, the measured output power is 5.8 W and drain efficiency is 18.5%. Based on time domain simulations, loss mechanisms are identified and optimization steps are discussed.
Different wideband amplifiers, hybrid designs at lower frequencies, and monolithically integrated circuits (MMIC) at higher frequencies were designed, fabricated, and measured. These amplifiers are all based on AlGaN/GaN HEMT technology. The future applications for these types of amplifiers are mainly electronic warfare (EW) applications. Novel communication jammers and especially active electronically scanned array EW systems have a high demand for wideband high power amplifiers. The second application also needs high robust low noise amplifiers for its receive path. Output power levels of 38 W for hybrid amplifiers at lower frequencies up to 6 GHz and 15 W for the MMIC power amplifiers at higher frequencies are measured. With these building blocks, novel EW system approaches can be investigated.
Amplifiers for the next generation of T/R modules in future active array antennas are realized as monolithically integrated circuits (MMIC) on the basis of novel AlGaN/GaN (is a chemical material description) high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) structures. Both low-noise and power amplifiers are designed for X-band frequencies. The MMICs are designed, simulated, and fabricated using a novel via-hole microstrip technology. Output power levels of 6.8 W (38 dBm) for the driver amplifier (DA) and 20 W (43 dBm) for the high-power amplifier (HPA) are measured. The measured noise figure of the low-noise amplifier (LNA) is in the range of 1.5 dB. A T/R-module front-end with mounted GaN MMICs is designed based on a multi-layer low-temperature cofired ceramic technology (LTCC).
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