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Limited information exists on the global economic impact of glyphosate-resistant (GR) weeds. The objective of this manuscript was to estimate the potential yield and economic loss from uncontrolled GR weeds in the major field crops grown in Ontario, Canada. The impact of GR weed interference on field crop yield was determined using an extensive database of field trials completed on commercial farms in southwestern Ontario between 2010 and 2021. Crop yield loss was estimated by expert opinion (weed scientists and Ontario government crop specialists) when research data were unavailable. This manuscript assumes that crop producers adjust their weed management programs to control GR weeds, which increases weed management costs but reduces crop yield loss from GR weed interference by 95%. GR volunteer corn, horseweed, waterhemp, giant ragweed, and common ragweed would cause an annual monetary loss of (in millions of Can$) $172, $104, $11, $3, and $0.3, respectively, for a total annual loss of $290 million if Ontario farmers did not adjust their weed management programs to control GR biotypes. The increased herbicide cost to control GR volunteer corn, horseweed, waterhemp, giant ragweed, and common ragweed in the major field crops in Ontario is estimated to be (in millions of Can$) $17, $9, $2, $0.1, and $0.02, respectively, for a total increase in herbicide expenditures of $28 million annually. Reduced GR weed interference with the adjusted weed management programs would reduce farm-gate monetary crop loss by 95% from $290 million to $15 million. This study estimates that GR weeds would reduce the farm-gate value of the major field crops produced in Ontario by Can$290 million annually if Ontario farmers did not adjust their weed management programs, but with increased herbicide costs of Can$28 million and reduced crop yield loss of 95% the actual annual monetary loss in Ontario is estimated to be Can$43 million annually.
Cultivation of lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton), an important crop in the eastern part of North America, is unique, as it is carried out over the course of two consecutive growing seasons. Pest management, particularly weed management, is impacted by this biennial cultural practice. The choice of methods to control weeds is narrow, and such a system relies heavily on herbicides for weed management. Availability of unique herbicide active ingredients for weed management is limited, and available herbicides are used repeatedly, so the risk of developing resistance is acute. Hair fescue (Festuca filiformis Pourr.), a perennial grass weed, has evolved resistance to hexazinone, a photosystem II inhibitor frequently used in lowbush blueberry production. We show that substitution of phenylalanine to isoleucine at position 255 is responsible for a decreased sensitivity to hexazinone by a factor of 6.12. Early diagnosis of resistance based on the detection of the mutation will alert growers to use alternative control methods and thus help to increase the sustainability of the cropping system.
The full spectrum of herbicide resistance in a weed can vary according to the mechanistic basis and cannot be implied from the selective pressure. Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) is an important weed species of horticultural crops that has developed resistance to linuron based on either target site– or non–target site resistance mechanisms. The objective of the study is to characterize the cross-resistance to metribuzin of linuron-selected biotypes of A. artemisiifolia with target site– and non–target site resistance and determine its genetic basis. Crosses were made between two types of linuron-resistant biotype and a linuron-susceptible biotype, and the progeny were further backcrossed with susceptible plants to the third backcross (BC3) generation to determine their responses to both herbicides compared with parental lines. The target site–based linuron-resistant biotype was cross-resistant to metribuzin, and resistance to both herbicides was maintained at the same level in the BC3 line. In contrast, the linuron-selected biotype with a non–target site resistance mechanism was not cross-resistant to metribuzin. In addition, the BC3 lines deriving from the non–target site resistant parents had very low-level resistance. While the target site–resistance trait is maintained through multiple crosses, non–target site based resistance would be lost over time when selection is absent or insufficient to retain all genes involved in resistance as a complex trait. This would imply A. artemisiifolia biotypes with different mechanisms would need to be managed differently over time.
Photosystem II (PS II)-inhibitor herbicide resistance in Ontario waterhemp [Amaranthus tuberculatus (Moq.) Sauer] populations is conferred via target-site resistance (TSR) and non–target site resistance (NTSR) mechanisms. Metribuzin-resistant (MR) A. tuberculatus is due to TSR. Conversely, in other populations of PS II–inhibitor resistant A. tuberculatus, plants are resistant to atrazine but metribuzin sensitive (MS). The objective of this study was to determine the biologically effective dose of metribuzin applied preemergence and postemergence for the control of MS and MR A. tuberculatus. Ten field experiments were conducted in 2019 and 2020 to determine the effective doses of metribuzin for 50%, 80%, and 95% control of MS and MR A. tuberculatus. Metribuzin applied preemergence at the calculated doses of 133, 350, and 1,070 g ai ha−1 controlled MS A. tuberculatus 50%, 80%, and 95%, respectively, whereas the calculated doses of 7,868 and 17,533 g ai ha−1 controlled MR A. tuberculatus 50% and 80%, respectively, at 12 wk after application (WAA). Metribuzin applied postemergence at the calculated doses of 245 and 1,480 g ai ha−1 controlled MS A. tuberculatus 50% and 80%, respectively; the calculated dose for 50% MR A. tuberculatus control was greater than the highest dose (17,920 g ai ha−1) included in this study. Metribuzin at 560 and 1,120 g ha−1 and pyroxasulfone/flumioxazin (240 g ai ha−1) applied preemergence controlled MS A. tuberculatus 88%, 95%, and 98%, respectively, at 12 WAA, whereas the same treatments only controlled MR A. tuberculatus 0%, 4%, and 93%, respectively, at 12 WAA. Metribuzin at 560 and 1,120 g ha−1 and fomesafen (240 g ai ha−1) applied postemergence controlled MS A. tuberculatus 65%, 70%, and 78%, and MR A. tuberculatus 0%, 1%, and 49%, respectively, at 12 WAA. Based on these results, PS II–inhibitor resistant A. tuberculatus with NTSR (enhanced metabolism) is controlled with metribuzin applied preemergence and postemergence; in contrast, PS II–inhibitor resistant A. tuberculatus with TSR (glycine-264-serine altered target site) is not controlled with metribuzin.
Common chickweed [Stellaria media (L.) Vill.] is an annual weed found in grain fields and pastures. This creeping weed produces a mat-like canopy that competes with crop seedlings for light and nutrients. This species is almost exclusively autogamous. Acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides are frequently used to control this broadleaf weed, and two mutations in the S. media ALS gene (Pro-197-Gln and Trp-574-Leu) have been reported to confer herbicide resistance. Seeds from several plants that survived an application of thifensulfuron-methyl/tribenuron-methyl (16 g ai ha−1) were collected from the same field in Québec, Canada. Seedlings were grown, tested for the presence of mutations in the ALS gene, and treated with different rates of foramsulfuron, flumetsulam, and imazethapyr, each belonging to different families of ALS inhibitors. Two herbicide resistance–conferring mutations were identified in this population. One biotype had the previously reported Pro-197-Gln, while a new mutation, Pro-197-Ser, was identified in different plants from the same population. The new mutation (Pro-197-Ser) confers a lower level of resistance to sulfonylureas than Pro-197-Gln, and both biotypes are susceptible to imizadolinone and triazolopyrimidines.
Glyphosate-resistant populations of Conyza canadensis have been spreading at a rapid rate in Ontario, Canada, since first being documented in 2010. Determining the genetic relationship among existing Ontario populations is necessary to understand the spread and selection of the resistant biotypes. The objectives of this study were to: (1) characterize the genetic variation of C. canadensis accessions from the province of Ontario using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and (2) investigate the molecular mechanism (s) conferring resistance in these accessions. Ninety-eight C. canadensis accessions were genotyped using 8 SSR markers. Germinable accessions were challenged with glyphosate to determine their dose response, and the sequences of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase genes 1 and 2 were obtained. Results indicate that a majority of glyphosate-resistant accessions from Ontario possessed a proline to serine substitution at position 106, which has previously been reported to confer glyphosate resistance in other crop and weed species. Accessions possessing this substitution demonstrated notably higher levels of resistance than non–target site resistant (NTSR) accessions from within or outside the growing region and were observed to form a subpopulation genetically distinct from geographically proximate glyphosate-susceptible and NTSR accessions. Although it is unclear whether other non–target site resistance mechanisms are contributing to the levels of resistance observed in target-site resistant accessions, these results indicate that, at a minimum, selection for Pro-106-Ser has occurred in addition to selection for non–target site resistance and has significantly enhanced the levels of resistance to glyphosate in C. canadensis accessions from Ontario.
Prodiamine is a dinitroaniline herbicide labeled for PRE control of goosegrass in warm- and cool-season turfgrass. In 2013, several golf course roughs in Maryville, TN reported poor goosegrass control (< 20%) following prodiamine treatment at 1,120 g ai ha-1. We harvested suspected prodiamine-resistant (PR) and prodiamine-susceptible (S) goosegrass phenotypes from the field and exposed them to a range of increasing prodiamine concentrations in hydroponic culture. Exposure to prodiamine at 0.001 mM reduced root growth of the S phenotype to 11% of the non-treated check. By comparison, exposure to 0.001 mM prodiamine had minimal effect on the PR phenotype, as root growth was 94% of the non-treated check. Molecular analyses revealed that PR plants contained a threonine (Thr) to isoleucine (Ile) substitution at position 239 on the α-tubulin 1 (TUA1) protein. The substitution, found in all PR plants, is the mechanism of prodiamine resistance in this phenotype. In field studies, topramezone controlled PR goosegrass 72% to 89% by 50 d after treatment (DAT) compared to only 22% to 23% for foramsulfuron. Topramezone treatment injured bermudagrass 34% to 60% from 7 to 14 DAT; however, injury was≤6% 28 DAT and 0% by the end of the study. Our results indicate that POST applications of topramezone can control dinitroaniline-resistant goosegrass. In addition, we established an easy-to-use genotyping assay to quickly screen goosegrass phenotypes for a target-site mutation (Thr-239-Ile) on TUA1 associated with resistance to dinitroaniline herbicides such as prodiamine. Future research should work to expand this assay for use with other weed species and herbicidal modes of action.
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