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This anthology surveys the ecological impacts of the First World War. Editors Richard P. Tucker, Tait Keller, J. R. McNeill, and Martin Schmidt bring together a list of experienced authors who explore the global interactions of states, armies, civilians, and the environment during the war. They show how the First World War ushered in enormous environmental changes, including the devastation of rural and urban environments, the consumption of strategic natural resources such as metals and petroleum, the impact of war on urban industry, and the disruption of agricultural landscapes leading to widespread famine. Taking a global perspective, Environmental Histories of the First World War presents the ecological consequences of the vast destructive power of the new weaponry and the close collaboration between militaries and civilian governments taking place during this time, showing how this war set trends for the rest of the century.
The oomycete Aphanomyces astaci, the causative agent of crayfish plague, is listed as one of the 100 worst invasive species in the world, destroying the native crayfish populations throughout Eurasia. The aim of this study was to examine the potential of selected mitochondrial (mt) genes to track the diversity of the crayfish plague pathogen A. astaci. Two sets of primers were developed to amplify the mtDNA of ribosomal rnnS and rnnL subunits. We confirmed two main lineages, with four different haplogroups and five haplotypes among 27 studied A. astaci strains. The haplogroups detected were (1) the A-haplogroup with the a-haplotype strains originating from Orconectes sp., Pacifastacus leniusculus and Astacus astacus; (2) the B-haplogroup with the b-haplotype strains originating from the P. leniusculus; (3) the D-haplogroup with the d1 and d2-haplotypes strains originating from Procambarus clarkii; and (4) the E-haplogroup with the e-haplotype strains originating from the Orconectes limosus. The described markers are stable and reliable and the results are easily repeatable in different laboratories. The present method has high applicability as it allows the detection and characterization of the A. astaci haplotype in acute disease outbreaks in the wild, directly from the infected crayfish tissue samples.
This paper presents the design and science goals for the SkyMapper telescope. SkyMapper is a 1.3-m telescope featuring a 5.7-square-degree field-of-view Cassegrain imager commissioned for the Australian National University's Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics. It is located at Siding Spring Observatory, Coonabarabran, NSW, Australia and will see first light in late 2007.
The imager possesses 16 384 × 16 384 0.5-arcsec pixels. The primary scientific goal of the facility is to perform the Southern Sky Survey, a six-colour and multi-epoch (four-hour, one-day, one-week, one-month and one-year sampling) photometric survey of the southerly 2π sr to g ∼23 mag. The survey will provide photometry to better than 3% global accuracy and astrometry to better than 50 milliarcsec. Data will be supplied to the community as part of the Virtual Observatory effort. The survey will take five years to complete.
In an emergency medical services (EMS) system, a certain number of events come to the attention of the pre-hospital subsystem that are subsequently characterized as having required “life-supportive” care. Such cases represent an undetermined portion of the persons, in the population served, who actually require such care. Generally, the life-support units that are available in a community are dispatched on the basis of information received at a medical emergency dispatching center. Very often, the information obtained from the caller is too ambiguous for a clear decision and, inevitably, there is a significant portion of “false-positive” or inappropriate runs. In systems in which little or no attempt is made to screen calls, the dispatching procedure inevitably becomes a “first come, first served” phenomenon and the inappropriateness of the responses is bound to be even greater.
Little is known about how persons with dementia and their care partners respond to mealtime changes that occur throughout the dementia journey. By interviewing 27 persons living with dementia and their 28 care partners, we explored the meaning and experience of change surrounding mealtimes. Participants adjusted to mealtime change by adapting to an evolving life, as a result of a dynamic process of becoming aware of change, attaching meaning to change, and responding to change. Seminal events compounded by a sense of things being different triggered awareness of mealtime changes. Meaning was attached to mealtime changes, observed through emotions experienced and diverse strategies developed to support mealtime values. Responding to change ranged from resisting, to being in a holding pattern, to transforming and adapting. Understanding how individuals and families adjust to mealtime changes, and the strategies they develop, provides critical insights for supporting families throughout the dementia journey.
It is well established that the presence of prominent anxiety within depressive episodes portends poorer outcomes. Important questions remain as to which anxiety features are important to outcome and how sustained their prognostic effects are over time.
To examine the relative prognostic importance of specific anxiety features and to determine whether their effects persist over decades and apply to both unipolar and bipolar conditions.
Participants with unipolar (n = 476) or bipolar (n = 335) depressive disorders were intensively followed for a mean of 16.7 years (s.d. = 8.5).
The number and severity of anxiety symptoms, but not the presence of pre-existing anxiety disorders, showed a robust and continuous relationship to the subsequent time spent in depressive episodes in both unipolar and bipolar depressive disorder. The strength of this relationship changed little over five successive 5-year periods.
The severity of current anxiety symptoms within depressive episodes correlates strongly with the persistence of subsequent depressive symptoms and this relationship is stable over decades.
We studied the thickness variation of equally doped ZnO:Al films used as conductive window layer in Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 (CIGSSe) thin film solar cells. The IV-characteristics of solar cells with window layer thickness of d1=200nm exhibit a strong enhancement of the short-circuit current density JSC (ΔJSC = 3mA/cm2) as compared to samples with module-like ZnO:Al-film thickness (d2=1200nm). Accordingly, the quantum efficiency reveals the spectral regimes where the JSC-gain occurs. Moreover, current-voltage measurements reveal that the cells with thicker ZnO:Al exhibit slightly decreased open circuit voltage VOC. This finding can be assigned to a decreased net-doping density NA, which appears to be introduced by additional heat flux during the longer process time required for deposition of thicker ZnO:Al films. However, the improved efficiency of solar cells with thinner window layer comes along with an increase of the series resistance (RS) by almost a factor of 2, which will have consequences for the series connection of elements in a module. XRD-diffractograms and SEM cross-section imaging suggest that the enhanced RS in cells with thin ZnO:Al is not exclusively related to the thickness but is also due to a reduced (002)-texture and an elongated lateral charge carrier pathway.