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New routes in additive devices fabrication techniques and advances in printable materials are required to meet the ever increasing demands for low-cost and large-area flexible electronics. In particular, perovskite-based materials have gained an appeal due to their unique optoelectronics and ferroelectrics properties, which may replace p-n junction in semiconductor devices. Metal-organic methylammonium lead trihalide perovskite formulations have been extensively studied in the last few years as promising materials for use in printed electronics, which do not require high temperatures or vacuum environment, contrary to conventional semiconductor fabrication techniques. In this work, digital inkjet-printing in ambient atmosphere is proposed as a deposition pathway for the fabrication of perovskite active layers in photodetector and thin-film photovoltaic device architectures. The device architecture containing a printed perovskite active layer sandwiched between TiO2 and Spiro-OMeTAD as electron and hole transport layers, respectively, as well as layer-on-layer fabrication and responsivity spectra of the perovskite-based device are presented.
We present studies using different observational techniques, along different frequencies, aiming to resolve and investigate jets, outflows, as well as compact and innermost regions of asymmetric planetary nebulae (PNe) and objects in transition to PN. All the information gathered allow us to explore the kinematics and other important properties of the structures that play a crucial role in the shaping of complex PNe morphologies, in particular, we explore the role of disks/tori as collimating engine of extreme axisymmetric PNe.
We present deep optical spectroscopy of seven planetary nebulae (PNe) in the substructures of M31, three in the Northern Spur and four associated with the Giant Stream. The spectra were obtained with the OSIRIS spectrograph on the 10.4 m GTC. The detection of the [O iii] λ4363 auroral line in all PNe of our sample enables reliable abundance determinations. Our targets have low N/O (<0.5) and He/H ratios, indicating that they are probably Type II PNe. The PNe in our sample have rather homogeneous oxygen abundances, with an average value of 8.56±0.10. Based on the abundances as well as the spatial and kinematical information of our targets, we speculate that the Northern Spur and the Giant Stream might have the same origin. We raise a hypothesis that the dwarf satellite M32 might be responsible for these two substructures. New observations have recently been made to assess this hypothesis.
The interior of a planetary nebula (PN) is expected to be filled with shocked fast wind from the central star. This hot gas plays the most important role in the dynamical evolution of the PN; however, its physical conditions are not well-known because useful X-ray and far-UV observations were not available until the advent of Chandra, XMM-Newton, and FUSE. This paper reviews X-ray observations of the hot gas in PN interiors and far-UV observations of the interfaces between the hot gas and the dense nebular shells.
We have used archival Chandra-acis observations to search for X-ray emission from WR stars in the Magellanic Clouds (MCs), where the low interstellar absorption and known distances make it easy to compare X-ray luminosities with spectral types and binary status of WR stars. We have detected X-ray emission from ~20 WR stars in the MCs with X-ray luminosities of 6.6×1032-1.4×1035 ergs s–1. The analysis of the X-ray spectra of the brightest sources indicates that the X-ray emitting gas has temperatures ≥ 1.0×107 K, as expected in colliding winds. We will compare these results with the binary status of the WR stars to determine the amounts of the X-ray emission produced in the colliding winds for WR stars in binary systems and to assess the X-ray emission from single WR stars.
We have undertaken a large and extensive spectroscopic survey of WNE stars both in the SMC and LMC with various 2m and 4m telescopes, reaching a total of 78 nights, spread over three years, and obtaining over 1500 long-slit spectra of medium resolution. The first goal is a systematic search for binaries via periodic radial-velocity variations. We enlarged our dataset with photometric data from the ogle and macho databases, and with archival X-ray data from the ROSAT and Chandra satellites.
The origin of the wide range of morphologies observed in planetary nebulae (PNe) is not well established. The influence of a binary companion of the central star can naturally explain this variety of morphologies, but very few PNe have known binary central stars. The evolution of the binary system with mass loss may result in the displacement of the central star from the nebular center. The large sample of PNe observed by HST is being used to search for de-centered central stars. Preliminary results indicate that the occurrence of de-centered central stars is widespread among all morphological types of PNe.
XMM-Newton EPIC observations of the planetary nebula NGC 7009, the Saturn Nebula, have detected extended X-ray emission from its central cavity. The diffuse X-ray emission must originate in the shocked fast stellar wind. Spectral analyses show that the temperature of the hot gas is 1.7 x 106 K. The RMS density derived from the volume emission measure is a few tens H-atom cm-3. The hot gas does not appear over-pressurized with respect to the nebular shell. The Saturn Nebula may represent an evolutionary stage at which the dynamic effects of the hot gas in the central cavity on the cold nebular shell starts to decline due to the diminishing strength of the fast stellar wind and the expansion of the central cavity.
Superb–seeing (0″ .40 FWHM) narrowband images and high resolution (R=60000) spectra of the asymmetrical planetary nebula IC 4593 have been used in order to study its detailed morphology and kinematics.
The aim of this work was to test the performance of a shrimp-tomato culture system (STCS) in an arid-semiarid region (Sonora, Mexico) and to evaluate the water quality variables and phytoplankton variation of shrimp effluent and that water returning from the tomato module culture. The field study was conducted using groundwater and consisted of three circular tanks that were used for shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) farming and were coupled to one culture module of tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum). The shrimp effluent was used to irrigate the tomato plants. The yield was 11.1±0.2 kg shrimp per tank (3.9±2.0 ton ha−1) and 33.3 kg tomatoes per 45 plants (36.1±2.3 ton ha−1). During the culture, the concentrations of nutrients were (mg L−1): total N-ammonia, <0.001–0.848; N-nitrite, <0.001–1.45; N-nitrate, 5.2–172.2; dissolved reactive-P, <0.005–0.343. A total of 35 taxa belonging to three different algal classes were observed: Chlorophyta (87 to 98%), Bacilliariophyta (2 to 9%) and Cyanophyta (0–3%). This STCS allowed us to harvest the equivalent of 3.9 ton ha−1 of shrimp and 36.3 ton ha−1 of tomatoes, with a water consumption of 2.1 m3 per kg harvested of both products.
Since the IUE satellite produced a vast collection of high-resolution UV spectra of the central stars of planetary nebulae (CSPNe), there has not been any further systematic study of the stellar winds of these stars. The high spectral resolution, sensitivity and large number of archival observations in the FUSE archive allow the study of the stellar winds of CSPNe in the far-UV domain where lines of species spanning a wide excitation range can be observed. We present here a preliminary analysis of the P Cygni profiles of a sample of ∼60 CSPNe observed by FUSE. P Cygni profiles providing evidence for fast stellar winds with velocities between 200 and 4300 km s−1 have been found in 40 CSPNe. In many cases, this is the first time that fast stellar winds have been reported for these planetary nebulae (PNe). A detailed study of these far-UV spectra is on-going.
We present new imaging data and archival multiwavelength observations of the little-studied emission nebula K 1-6 and its central star. Narrow-band images inHα (+[N II]) and [O III] taken with the Faulkes Telescope North reveal a stratified, asymmetric, elliptical nebula surrounding a central star which has the colours of a late G or early K-type subgiant or giant. GALEX ultraviolet images reveal a very hot subdwarf or white dwarf coincident in position with this star. The cooler, optically dominant star is strongly variable with a period of 21.312± 0.008 days, and is possibly a high-amplitude member of the RS CVn class, although an FK Com classification is also possible. Archival ROSAT data provide good evidence that the cool star has an active corona. We conclude that K 1-6 is most likely an old bona fide planetary nebula at a distance of ∼1.0 kpc, interacting with the interstellar medium, and containing a binary or ternary central star. The observations and data analyses reported in this paper were conducted in conjunction with Year 11 high school students as part of an Australian Research Council Linkage Grant science education project, denoted Space To Grow, conducted jointly by professional astronomers, educational researchers, teachers, and high-school students.
The last part of SpS5 dealt with the circumstellar environment. Structures are indeed found around several types of massive stars, such as blue and red supergiants, as well as WRs and LBVs. As shown in the last years, the potential of IR for their study is twofold: first, IR can help discover many previously unknown nebulae, leading to the identification of new massive stars as their progenitors; second, IR can help characterize the nebular features. Current and new IR facilities thus pave the way to a better understanding of the feedback from massive stars.
Water fountains are evolved stars showing water masers with velocity spanning more than ~100 km/s. They usually appear at the end of the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) phase or at the beginning of the post-AGB phase, and their masers trace the first manifestation of axisymmetric collimated mass-loss. For the first time, masers with water fountain characteristics have been detected towards a PN (IRAS 15103–5754), which might require a revision of the current theories about jet formation and survival times. IRAS 15103-5754 was observed using the ATCA interferometer at 22 GHz (both continuum and water maser). The main results of these observations are summarized here. The evolutionary classification of this object is also discussed.
K3-35 is an extremely young bipolar planetary nebula that contains a precessing bipolar jet and a small (radius 80 AU) water maser equatorial ring. We have obtained VISIR-VLT images of K3-35 in the PAH1 (λ=8.6 μm), [S iv] (λ=10.6 μm), and SiC (λ=11.85 μm) filters to analize the mid-IR morphology and the temperature structure of its dust emission. The images show the innermost nebular regions undetected at optical wavelegths and the precessing bipolar jets. The temperature map shows variations in the temperature in the equatorial zone and in regions associated to its jets.
The photospheric emission from the hottest central stars of planetary nebulae (CSPNe) is capable to extend into the X-ray domain, with emission peaking at 0.1-0.2 keV and vanishing above 0.4 keV. Unexpected, intriguing hard X-ray emission with energies greater than 0.5 keV has been reported for several CSPNe and for a number of white dwarfs (WDs). Different mechanisms may be responsible for the hard X-ray emission from CSPNe and WDs: coronal emission from a late-type companion, shocks in fast winds as in OB stars, leakage from underneath the star photosphere, or accretion of material from a disk, a companion star, or the circumstellar medium. Therefore, the hard X-ray emission associated with CSPNe may have significant implications for our understanding of the formation of PNe: binary companions, disks, and magnetic fields are thought to play a major role in the shaping of PNe, whereas clumping in the stellar wind may have notable effects in the PN evolution by modifying the stellar mechanical energy output. Here I present the results of different observational efforts to search for hard X-ray emission from CSPNe and discuss the different mechanisms for the production of hard X-rays.
Kn 26 is a recently identified planetary nebula (PN). To confirm its nature and study its spatio-kinematical structure, we have obtained high spatial-resolution optical and near-IR narrowband images, high-dispersion long-slit echelle spectra, and intermediate-resolution spectroscopic observations. The new data confirm the PN nature of Kn 26 and reveal features typical of bipolar PNe: hourglass morphology, H2 emission, and nitrogen enrichment. A detailed analysis of its morphology and kinematics, however, suggests the presence of one additional pair of bipolar lobes that would make Kn 26 a new member of the class of quadrupolar PNe.
We present XMM-Newton and Chandra observations of the born-again planetary nebula A 30. These X-ray observations reveal a bright unresolved source at the position of the central star whose X-ray luminosity exceeds by far the model expectations for photospheric emission and for shocks within the stellar wind. We suggest that a “born-again hot bubble” may be responsible for this X-ray emission. Diffuse X-ray emission associated with the petal-like features and one of the H-poor knots seen in the optical is also found. The weakened emission of carbon lines in the spectrum of the diffuse emission can be interpreted as the dilution of stellar wind by mass-loading or as the detection of material ejected during a very late thermal pulse.
We present narrow-band optical and near-IR images, and high-resolution long-slit spectra of the planetary nebula Hu 1-2 that allow us to make a detailed description of its unusual morphology and internal kinematics. The data also reveal that the ansae of Hu 1-2 probably represent bow-shocks associated to high velocity outflows that are irradiated from the central star.