To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Basal units – visibly distinct englacial structures near the ice-bed interface – warrant investigation for a number of reasons. Many are of unknown composition and origin, characteristics that could provide substantial insight into subglacial processes and ice-sheet history. Their significance, moreover, is not limited to near-bed depths; these units appear to dramatically influence the flow of surrounding ice. In order to enable improved characterization of these features, we develop and apply an algorithm that allows for the automatic detection of basal units. We use a tunable layer-optimized SAR processor to distinguish these structures from the bed, isochronous englacial layers and the ice-sheet surface, presenting a conceptual framework for the use of radio-echo character in the identification of ice-sheet features. We also outline a method by which our processor could be used to place observational constraints on basal units’ configuration, composition and provenance.
The date of unique symbolic carvings, from various contexts across north and east Scotland, has been debated for over a century. Excavations at key sites and direct dating of engraved bone artefacts have allowed for a more precise chronology, extending from the third/fourth centuries AD, broadly contemporaneous with other non-vernacular scripts developed beyond the frontiers of the Roman Empire, to the ninth century AD. These symbols were probably an elaborate, non-alphabetic writing system, a Pictish response to broader European changes in power and identity during the transition from the Roman Empire to the early medieval period.
Whether monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins differ from each other in a variety of phenotypes is important for genetic twin modeling and for inferences made from twin studies in general. We analyzed whether there were differences in individual, maternal and paternal education between MZ and DZ twins in a large pooled dataset. Information was gathered on individual education for 218,362 adult twins from 27 twin cohorts (53% females; 39% MZ twins), and on maternal and paternal education for 147,315 and 143,056 twins respectively, from 28 twin cohorts (52% females; 38% MZ twins). Together, we had information on individual or parental education from 42 twin cohorts representing 19 countries. The original education classifications were transformed to education years and analyzed using linear regression models. Overall, MZ males had 0.26 (95% CI [0.21, 0.31]) years and MZ females 0.17 (95% CI [0.12, 0.21]) years longer education than DZ twins. The zygosity difference became smaller in more recent birth cohorts for both males and females. Parental education was somewhat longer for fathers of DZ twins in cohorts born in 1990–1999 (0.16 years, 95% CI [0.08, 0.25]) and 2000 or later (0.11 years, 95% CI [0.00, 0.22]), compared with fathers of MZ twins. The results show that the years of both individual and parental education are largely similar in MZ and DZ twins. We suggest that the socio-economic differences between MZ and DZ twins are so small that inferences based upon genetic modeling of twin data are not affected.
Modern excavations can sometimes provide surprising new insights on antiquarian finds of metalwork. The Pictish silver hoard from Gaulcross in north-eastern Scotland provides an excellent example. Recent fieldwork, including metal-detecting, has clarified the size and composition of the hoard, and uncovered 100 new silver items, including coins, fragments of brooches and bracelets, ingots and parcels of cut, bent and broken silver known as Hacksilber. Comparisons with other hoards and with Pictish symbol stones illustrate the circumstances and date of deposition, the origin of the silver and the forms of society emerging in Scotland in the post-Roman period.
We analyzed birth order differences in means and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins from infancy to old age. The data were derived from the international CODATwins database. The total number of height and BMI measures from 0.5 to 79.5 years of age was 397,466. As expected, first-born twins had greater birth weight than second-born twins. With respect to height, first-born twins were slightly taller than second-born twins in childhood. After adjusting the results for birth weight, the birth order differences decreased and were no longer statistically significant. First-born twins had greater BMI than the second-born twins over childhood and adolescence. After adjusting the results for birth weight, birth order was still associated with BMI until 12 years of age. No interaction effect between birth order and zygosity was found. Only limited evidence was found that birth order influenced variances of height or BMI. The results were similar among boys and girls and also in MZ and DZ twins. Overall, the differences in height and BMI between first- and second-born twins were modest even in early childhood, while adjustment for birth weight reduced the birth order differences but did not remove them for BMI.
A trend toward greater body size in dizygotic (DZ) than in monozygotic (MZ) twins has been suggested by some but not all studies, and this difference may also vary by age. We analyzed zygosity differences in mean values and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) among male and female twins from infancy to old age. Data were derived from an international database of 54 twin cohorts participating in the COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins), and included 842,951 height and BMI measurements from twins aged 1 to 102 years. The results showed that DZ twins were consistently taller than MZ twins, with differences of up to 2.0 cm in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.9 cm in adulthood. Similarly, a greater mean BMI of up to 0.3 kg/m2 in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.2 kg/m2 in adulthood was observed in DZ twins, although the pattern was less consistent. DZ twins presented up to 1.7% greater height and 1.9% greater BMI than MZ twins; these percentage differences were largest in middle and late childhood and decreased with age in both sexes. The variance of height was similar in MZ and DZ twins at most ages. In contrast, the variance of BMI was significantly higher in DZ than in MZ twins, particularly in childhood. In conclusion, DZ twins were generally taller and had greater BMI than MZ twins, but the differences decreased with age in both sexes.
For over 100 years, the genetics of human anthropometric traits has attracted scientific interest. In particular, height and body mass index (BMI, calculated as kg/m2) have been under intensive genetic research. However, it is still largely unknown whether and how heritability estimates vary between human populations. Opportunities to address this question have increased recently because of the establishment of many new twin cohorts and the increasing accumulation of data in established twin cohorts. We started a new research project to analyze systematically (1) the variation of heritability estimates of height, BMI and their trajectories over the life course between birth cohorts, ethnicities and countries, and (2) to study the effects of birth-related factors, education and smoking on these anthropometric traits and whether these effects vary between twin cohorts. We identified 67 twin projects, including both monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins, using various sources. We asked for individual level data on height and weight including repeated measurements, birth related traits, background variables, education and smoking. By the end of 2014, 48 projects participated. Together, we have 893,458 height and weight measures (52% females) from 434,723 twin individuals, including 201,192 complete twin pairs (40% monozygotic, 40% same-sex dizygotic and 20% opposite-sex dizygotic) representing 22 countries. This project demonstrates that large-scale international twin studies are feasible and can promote the use of existing data for novel research purposes.
Predictions of marine ice-sheet behaviour require models able to simulate grounding-line migration. We present results of an intercomparison experiment for plan-view marine ice-sheet models. Verification is effected by comparison with approximate analytical solutions for flux across the grounding line using simplified geometrical configurations (no lateral variations, no buttressing effects from lateral drag). Perturbation experiments specifying spatial variation in basal sliding parameters permitted the evolution of curved grounding lines, generating buttressing effects. The experiments showed regions of compression and extensional flow across the grounding line, thereby invalidating the boundary layer theory. Steady-state grounding-line positions were found to be dependent on the level of physical model approximation. Resolving grounding lines requires inclusion of membrane stresses, a sufficiently small grid size (<500 m), or subgrid interpolation of the grounding line. The latter still requires nominal grid sizes of <5 km. For larger grid spacings, appropriate parameterizations for ice flux may be imposed at the grounding line, but the short-time transient behaviour is then incorrect and different from models that do not incorporate grounding-line parameterizations. The numerical error associated with predicting grounding-line motion can be reduced significantly below the errors associated with parameter ignorance and uncertainties in future scenarios.
Density functional theory (DFT) calculations and classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been performed to gain insight into the difference in cycling behaviors between the ethylene carbonate (EC)-based and the propylene carbonate (PC)-based electrolytes in lithium-ion battery cells. DFT calculations for the ternary graphite intercalation compounds (Li+(S)iCn: S=EC or PC), in which the solvated lithium ion Li+(S)i (i=1~3) was inserted into a graphite cell, suggested that Li+(EC)iCn was more stable than Li+(PC)iCn in general. Furthermore, Li+(PC)3Cn was found to be energetically unfavorable, while Li+(PC)2Cn was stable, relative to their corresponding Li+(PC)i in the bulk electrolyte. The calculations also revealed severe structural distortions of the PC molecule in Li+(PC)3Cn, suggesting a rapid kinetic effect on PC decomposition reactions, as compared to decompositions of EC. In addition, MD simulations were carried out to examine the solvation structures at a high salt concentration: 2.45 mo kg-1. The results showed that the solvation structure was significantly interrupted by the counter anions, having a smaller solvation number than that at a lower salt concentration (0.83 mol kg-1). We propose that at high salt concentrations, the lithium desolvation may be facilitated due to the increased contact ion pairs, so that a stable ternary GIC with less solvent molecules can be formed without the destruction of graphite particles, followed by solid-electrolyte-interface film formation reactions. The results from both DFT calculations and MD simulations are consistent with the recent experimental observations.
The authors of this paper consider the anti-ferromagnetic Potts model on the the integer lattice Z2. The model has two parameters: q, the number of spins, and λ = exp(−β), where β 4 is ‘inverse temperature’. It is known that the model has strong spatial mixing if q > 7, or if q = 7 and λ = 0 or λ > 1/8, or if q = 6 and λ = 0 or λ > 1/4. The λ = 0 case corresponds to the model in which configurations are proper q-colourings of Z2. It is shown that the system has strong spatial mixing for q ≥ 6 and any λ. This implies that Glauber dynamics is rapidly mixing (so there is a fully-polynomial randomised approximation scheme for the partition function), and also that there is a unique infinite-volume Gibbs state. We also show that strong spatial mixing occurs for a larger range of λ than was previously known for q = 3, q = 4 and q = 5.
We consider Glauber dynamics on finite spin systems. The mixing time of Glauber dynamics can be bounded in terms of the influences of sites on each other. We consider three parameters bounding these influences: α, the total influence on a site, as studied by Dobrushin; α′, the total influence of a site, as studied by Dobrushin and Shlosman; and α″, the total influence of a site in any given context, which is related to the path-coupling method of Bubley and Dyer. It is known that if any of these parameters is less than 1 then random-update Glauber dynamics (in which a randomly chosen site is updated at each step) is rapidly mixing. It is also known that the Dobrushin condition α < 1 implies that systematic-scan Glauber dynamics (in which sites are updated in a deterministic order) is rapidly mixing. This paper studies two related issues, primarily in the context of systematic scan: (1) the relationship between the parameters α, α′ and α″, and (2) the relationship between proofs of rapid mixing using Dobrushin uniqueness (which typically use analysis techniques) and proofs of rapid mixing using path coupling. We use matrix balancing to show that the Dobrushin–Shlosman condition α′ < 1 implies rapid mixing of systematic scan. An interesting question is whether the rapid mixing results for scan can be extended to the α = 1 or α′ = 1 case. We give positive results for the rapid mixing of systematic scan for certain α = 1 cases. As an application, we show rapid mixing of systematic scan (for any scan order) for heat-bath Glauber dynamics for proper q-colourings of a degree-Δ graph G when q ≥ 2Δ.
The public health significance of mixed anxiety–depressive disorder (MADD) and the distinctiveness of its phenomenology have yet to be established.
To determine the public health significance of MADD, and to compare its phenomenology with ICD-10 anxiety, depressive, and comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders.
Weighted analysis of data from the Great Britain National Psychiatric Morbidity survey was conducted with a representative household sample of 8580 persons aged 16–74 years.
The 1-month prevalence of MADD was 8.8%. A fifth of all days off work in Britain occurred in this group. The symptom profile of MADD was similar to ‘pure’ ICD-10 anxiety and depression, but with a lower overall symptom count. The disorder was associated with significant impairment of health-related quality of life. Differences in health-related quality of life measures between diagnostic groups were accounted for by overall symptom severity, which remained strongly associated with health-related quality of life measures after adjusting for diagnostic group. The finding that half of the anxiety, depression and MADD cases and a third of the comorbid depression and anxiety cases grouped into a single latent class challenges the notion of these conditions as having distinct phenomenologies. Mixed presentations may be the norm in the population.
The data support the pathological significance of MADD in its negative impact upon population health. Dimensional approaches to classification may provide a more parsimonious description of anxiety and depressive disorders compared with categorical approaches.
Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) is effective for treating anxiety and depression in primary care, but there is a shortage of therapists. Computer-delivered treatment may be a viable alternative.
To assess the cost-effectiveness of computer-delivered CBT.
A sample of people with depression or anxiety were randomised to usual care (n = 128) or computer-delivered CBT (n = 146). Costs were available for 123 and 138 participants, respectively. Costs and depression scores were combined using the net benefit approach.
Service costs were £40 (90% CI-£28 to £148) higher over 8 months for computer-delivered CBT. Lost-employment costs were £407 (90% CI £196 to £586) less for this group. Valuing a 1-unit improvement on the Beck Depression Inventory at £40, there is an 81% chance that computer-delivered CBT is cost-effective, and it revealed a highly competitive cost per quality-adjusted life year.
Computer-delivered CBT has a high probability of being cost-effective, even if a modest value is placed on unit improvements in depression.
The ability to probe chemical heterogeneity with nanometer scale resolution is essential for developing a molecular–level understanding of a variety of phenomena occurring at surfaces of materials. One area that could benefit greatly from nanoscale chemical measurement is an understanding of the degradation mechanisms of polymeric materials exposed to the environment. For example, the degradation (photo and hydrolytic) of polymers and polymeric materials has been observed to occur non-uniformly in which nanometer pits form locally, which deepen and enlarge with exposure (1, 2). The pitting has been postulated to initiate in the hydrophilic degradation-susceptible regions of the films (3). However, due to the lack of spatial resolution of the most current surface analytical techniques, the chemical nature of the degradation-initiated locations has not been identified. The use of a chemically-functionalized probe in an AFM (chemical force microscopy CFM) (4) has been shown to be capable of discriminating chemically-different domains of self-assembled monolayer (SAM) surfaces at the nanoscale spatial resolution. This study provides data to demonstrate that, by using proper RH at the tip-sample environment, the contrast between the hydrophilic and hydrophobic domains in SAM and polymer samples can be discerned, and presents results on the effects of RH on tipsample adhesion forces for different substrates.
We consider a stochastic process based on the iterated prisoner's dilemma game. During
the game, each of n players has a state, either cooperate or defect. The players are connected
by an ‘interaction graph’. During each step of the process, an edge of the graph is chosen
uniformly at random and the states of the players connected by the edge are modified
according to the Pavlov strategy. The process converges to a unique absorbing state in
which all players cooperate. We prove two conjectures of Kittock: the convergence rate is
exponential in n when the interaction graph is a complete graph, and it is polynomial in n
when the interaction graph is a cycle. In fact, we show that the rate is O(n log n) in the