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The interaction between water and oxide surfaces plays an important role in many technological applications and environmental processes. However, gaining fundamental understanding of processes at oxide–water interfaces is challenging because of the complexity of the systems. To this end, results of experimental and computational studies utilizing well-defined oxide surfaces help to gain molecular-scale insights into the properties and reactivity of water on oxide surfaces. This is a necessary basis for the understanding of oxide surface chemistry in more complex environments. This review highlights recent advances in the fundamental understanding of oxide–water interaction using surface science experiments. In particular, we will discuss the results on crystalline and well-defined supported thin film oxide samples of the alkaline earth oxides (MgO and CaO), silica (SiO2), and magnetite (Fe3O4). Several aspects of water–oxide interactions such as adsorption modes (molecular versus dissociative), formation of long-range ordered structures, and dissolution processes will be discussed.
HIFI instrument onboard the Herschel satellite provided an unprecedented number of detections of rotational transitions of ammonia in circumstellar envelopes of evolved stars including massive red supergiants, Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB), and post-AGB stars. The chemistry of ammonia formation in the circumstellar envelopes of evolved stars is poorly understood. The mechanisms proposed for its formation are processes behind the shock front, photochemistry in the inner part of the clumpy envelope, and formation on dust grains. We present results of the non-local thermodynamical equilibrium (non-LTE) radiative transfer modeling of ammonia transitions, mainly of the ground-state rotational one NH3 JK = 10 – 00 at 572.5 GHz, in selected AGB stars, aiming at the quantitative estimation of the NH3 abundance. The model of ammonia includes IR radiative pumping via v2 = 1 vibrational band at 10 μm.
Sentinel-1A is a space-borne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system developed in the frame of the Copernicus Program. The German Aerospace Center supported the radiometric and polarimetric calibration of Sentinel-1A by the analysis of point target responses of several acquisitions considering different modes, beams, and polarization channels. An elevation dependent bias, which had not been properly predicted by the used antenna model, was found for all investigated modes. Offsets of up to 2 dB were determined during the SAR instrument calibration phase, in particular, for low and high elevation angles. Therefore, in order to correct these elevation biases, a radiometric refinement was carried out by European Space Agency in November 2015. After that, Sentinel-1A radiometric accuracy and long-term stability were analyzed over a period of 1.5 years. For this period, the absolute calibration factor and the channel imbalance were determined for the main imaging mode. Moreover, a slight drift of the derived calibration factor was observed starting from July 2016. At the same time an anomaly was detected in the front-end affecting several transmit and receive modules in one tile. The radiometric behavior of Sentinel-1A should therefore be monitored for a longer period of time, especially to detect potential degradation effects of the SAR instrument.
We present the first data release of the SkyMapper Southern Survey, a hemispheric survey carried out with the SkyMapper Telescope at Siding Spring Observatory in Australia. Here, we present the survey strategy, data processing, catalogue construction, and database schema. The first data release dataset includes over 66 000 images from the Shallow Survey component, covering an area of 17 200 deg2 in all six SkyMapper passbands uvgriz, while the full area covered by any passband exceeds 20 000 deg2. The catalogues contain over 285 million unique astrophysical objects, complete to roughly 18 mag in all bands. We compare our griz point-source photometry with Pan-STARRS1 first data release and note an RMS scatter of 2%. The internal reproducibility of SkyMapper photometry is on the order of 1%. Astrometric precision is better than 0.2 arcsec based on comparison with Gaia first data release. We describe the end-user database, through which data are presented to the world community, and provide some illustrative science queries.
Studies with healthy participants and patients with respiratory diseases suggest a relation between respiration and mood. The aim of the present analyses was to investigate whether emotionally challenged remitted depressed participants show higher respiration pattern variability (RPV) and whether this is related to mood, clinical outcome and increased default mode network connectivity.
To challenge participants, sad mood was induced with keywords of personal negative life events in individuals with remitted depression [recurrent major depressive disorder (rMDD), n = 30] and matched healthy controls (HCs, n = 30) during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Respiration was measured by means of a built-in respiration belt. Additionally, questionnaires, a daily life assessment of mood and a 3 years follow-up were applied. For replication, we analysed RPV in an independent sample of 53 rMDD who underwent the same fMRI paradigm.
During sad mood, rMDD compared with HC showed greater RPV, with higher variability in pause duration and respiration frequency and lower expiration to inspiration ratio. Higher RPV was related to lower daily life mood and predicted higher depression scores as well as relapses during a 3-year follow-up period. Furthermore, in rMDD compared with HC higher main respiration frequency exhibited a more positive association with connectivity of the posterior cingulate cortex and the right parahippocampal gyrus.
The results suggest a relation between RPV, mood and depression on the behavioural and neural level. Based on our findings, we propose interventions focusing on respiration to be a promising additional tool in the treatment of depression.
Monensin (Mon) is an anticoccidial polyether ionophore widely used to control coccidiosis. The extensive use of polyether ionophores on poultry farms resulted in widespread resistance, but the underlying resistance mechanisms are unknown in detail. For analysing the mode of action by which resistance against polyether ionophores is obtained, we induced in vitro Mon resistance in Toxoplasma gondii-RH strain (MonR-RH) and compared it with the sensitive parental strain (Sen-RH). The proteome assessment of MonR-RH and Sen-RH strains was obtained after isotopic labelling using stable isotope labelling by amino acid in cell culture. Relative proteomic quantification between resistant and sensitive strains was performed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. Overall, 1024 proteins were quantified and 52 proteins of them were regulated. The bioinformatic analysis revealed regulation of cytoskeletal and transmembrane proteins being involved in transport mechanisms, metal ion-binding and invasion. During invasion, actin and microneme protein 8 (MIC8) are seem to be important for conoid extrusion and forming moving junction with host cells, respectively. Actin was significantly upregulated, while MIC8 was downregulated, which indicate an invasion reduction in the resistant strain. Resistance against Mon is not a simple process but it involves reduced invasion and egress activity of T. gondii tachyzoites while intracellular replication is enhanced.
In southern Africa, Middle Stone Age sites with long sequences have been the
focus of intense international and interdisciplinary research over the past
decade (cf. Wadley 2015). Two techno-complexes of the Middle Stone Age—the
Still Bay and Howiesons Poort—have been associated with many technological
and behavioural innovations of Homo sapiens. The classic
model argues that these two techno-complexes are temporally separated
‘horizons’ with homogenous material culture (Jacobs et al.
2008), reflecting demographic pulses and supporting large subcontinental
networks. This model was developed on the basis of evidence from southern
African sites regarded as centres of subcontinental developments.
Consumer sales law has been a demanding topic for both practising lawyers and legal scholars in the last decade because of the frequency of fundamental legislative changes and precedents set by the European Court of Justice. This particularly holds true for Germany, which in the past – and particularly with the Consumer Rights Directive 2011/83/EU – did not, and still does not, implement European Directives in a word for word manner, but tries to implement the European rules into the national system and terminology. Several legislative acts adjusting the original implementations have become necessary to correct these deviations in wording and system, when the ECJ has decided that the original transposition was contrary to European law.
Therefore, the implementation of the Consumer Rights Directive 2011/83/EU has also become a demanding task and only some of the issues discussed and re-discussed may be presented here. One of the peculiarities of implementing EU Consumer Law Directives into German law since 2002 had been the integration of European Consumer Law into national general sales law and general contract law. This was one of the basic decisions taken by the legislator when reforming the German Civil Code and implementing the Consumer Sales Directive 1999/44/EC in 2002 and this decision had been maintained in the following changes of the Civil Code. One characteristic consequence of this particularity has been a Civil Code that is permanently under (re-)construction.
THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CONSUMER RIGHTS DIRECTIVE 2011/83/EU
The first draft s for the implementation for the Act implementing the Consumer Rights Directive were presented rather early in 2013. The reason for the hurry was the threat of the German general elections in Autumn 2013 for which a kind of stoppage in most legislative processes was predictable (and which in fact took place until the middle of 2014). Therefore, the official draft by the Federal Government was presented on 6 March 2013. The legislative procedure moved at a rather fast pace and the final act was published in the official journal on 27 September 2013. Therefore, changes to several acts and in particular to the German Civil Code entered into force in time on 13 June 2014.
Approximately half of the variation in wellbeing measures overlaps with variation in personality traits. Studies of non-human primate pedigrees and human twins suggest that this is due to common genetic influences. We tested whether personality polygenic scores for the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) domains and for item response theory (IRT) derived extraversion and neuroticism scores predict variance in wellbeing measures. Polygenic scores were based on published genome-wide association (GWA) results in over 17,000 individuals for the NEO-FFI and in over 63,000 for the IRT extraversion and neuroticism traits. The NEO-FFI polygenic scores were used to predict life satisfaction in 7 cohorts, positive affect in 12 cohorts, and general wellbeing in 1 cohort (maximal N = 46,508). Meta-analysis of these results showed no significant association between NEO-FFI personality polygenic scores and the wellbeing measures. IRT extraversion and neuroticism polygenic scores were used to predict life satisfaction and positive affect in almost 37,000 individuals from UK Biobank. Significant positive associations (effect sizes <0.05%) were observed between the extraversion polygenic score and wellbeing measures, and a negative association was observed between the polygenic neuroticism score and life satisfaction. Furthermore, using GWA data, genetic correlations of -0.49 and -0.55 were estimated between neuroticism with life satisfaction and positive affect, respectively. The moderate genetic correlation between neuroticism and wellbeing is in line with twin research showing that genetic influences on wellbeing are also shared with other independent personality domains.
The newly identified Paleolithic site Sima de Las Palomas de Teba hosts an almost seven-m-thick sediment profile investigated here to elucidate the rock shelter's chronostratigraphy and formation processes. At its base, the sediment sequence contains rich archeological deposits recording intensive occupation by Neanderthals. Luminescence provides a terminus ante quem of 39.4 ± 2.6 ka or 44.9 ± 4.1 ka (OSL) and 51.4 ± 8.4 ka (TL). This occupation ended with a rockfall event followed by accumulation of archeologically sterile sediments. These were covered by sediments containing few Middle Paleolithic artifacts, which either indicate ephemeral occupation by Neanderthals or reworking as suggested by micromorphological features. Above this unit, scattered lithic artifacts of undiagnostic character may represent undefined Paleolithic occupations. Sediment burial ages between about 23.0 ± 1.5 ka (OSL) and 40.5 ± 3.4 ka (pIRIR) provide an Upper Paleolithic chronology for sediments deposited above the rockfall. Finally, a dung-bearing Holocene layer in the uppermost part of the sequence contains a fragment of a human mandible dated to 4032 ± 39 14C yr BP. Overall, the sequence represents an important new site for studying the end of Neanderthal occupation in southern Spain.