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The principal aim of this study was to optimize the diagnosis of canine neuroangiostrongyliasis (NA). In total, 92 cases were seen between 2010 and 2020. Dogs were aged from 7 weeks to 14 years (median 5 months), with 73/90 (81%) less than 6 months and 1.7 times as many males as females. The disease became more common over the study period. Most cases (86%) were seen between March and July. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was obtained from the cisterna magna in 77 dogs, the lumbar cistern in f5, and both sites in 3. Nucleated cell counts for 84 specimens ranged from 1 to 146 150 cells μL−1 (median 4500). Percentage eosinophils varied from 0 to 98% (median 83%). When both cisternal and lumbar CSF were collected, inflammation was more severe caudally. Seventy-three CSF specimens were subjected to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing for antibodies against A. cantonensis; 61 (84%) tested positive, titres ranging from <100 to ⩾12 800 (median 1600). Sixty-one CSF specimens were subjected to real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) testing using a new protocol targeting a bioinformatically-informed repetitive genetic target; 53/61 samples (87%) tested positive, CT values ranging from 23.4 to 39.5 (median 30.0). For 57 dogs, it was possible to compare CSF ELISA serology and qPCR. ELISA and qPCR were both positive in 40 dogs, in 5 dogs the ELISA was positive while the qPCR was negative, in 9 dogs the qPCR was positive but the ELISA was negative, while in 3 dogs both the ELISA and qPCR were negative. NA is an emerging infectious disease of dogs in Sydney, Australia.
An industry levy on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) was implemented in the UK in 2018. One year later, Brexit is likely to change the UK trade regime with potential implications for sugar price. We modelled the effect of potential changes in sugar price due to Brexit on SSB levy impacts upon CHD mortality and inequalities.
We modelled a baseline SSB levy scenario; an SSB levy under ‘soft’ Brexit, where the UK establishes a free trading agreement with the EU; and an SSB levy under ‘hard’ Brexit, in which World Trade Organization tariffs are applied. We used the previously validated IMPACT Food Policy model and probabilistic sensitivity analysis to estimate the effect of each scenario on CHD deaths prevented or postponed and life-years gained, stratified by age, sex and socio-economic circumstance, in 2021.
Adults aged 25 years or older.
The SSB levy was associated with approximately 370 (95 % uncertainty interval 220, 560) fewer CHD deaths and 4490 (2690, 6710) life-years gained in 2021. Associated reductions in CHD mortality were 4 and 8 % greater under ‘soft’ and ‘hard’ Brexit scenarios, respectively. The SSB levy was associated with approximately 110 (50, 190) fewer CHD deaths in the most deprived quintile compared with 60 (20, 100) in the most affluent, under ‘hard’ Brexit.
Our study found the SSB levy resilient to potential effects of Brexit upon sugar price. Even under ‘hard’ Brexit, the SSB levy would yield benefits for CHD mortality and inequalities. Brexit negotiations should deliver a fiscal and regulatory environment which promotes population health.
As part of the Z-PAndAS Keck II DEIMOS survey of resolved stars in our neighboring galaxy, Andromeda (M31), we have built up a unique data set of measured velocities and chemistries for thousands of stars in the Andromeda stellar halo, particularly probing its rich and complex substructure. In this contribution, we will discuss the structural, dynamical and chemical properties of Andromeda's dwarf spheroidal galaxies, and how there is no observational evidence for a difference in the evolutionary histories of those found on and off M31's vast plane of satellites. We will also discuss a possible extension to the most significant merger event in M31 - the Giant Southern Stream - and how we can use this feature to refine our understanding of M31's mass profile, and its complex evolution.
To evaluate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of Access to Psychological Services Ireland (APSI), a primary care adult psychology service.
A repeated measures design was used to evaluate the clinical outcomes of service users who completed an intervention. Psychological distress, depressive symptomatology and anxiety symptomatology were measured using the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation–Outcome Measure (CORE-OM), the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and the Generalised Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), respectively. Self-reported health and economic outcomes were measured using the EQ-5D-3L and the Eco-Psy, respectively.
A total of 381 adults were assessed as suitable for an APSI intervention, with 198 (52%) of these completing at least one intervention. Significant reductions in psychological distress were observed for completers of guided self-help and brief cognitive behavioural therapy, with service users also showing significant reductions in anxiety and depressive symptomatology. Reliable and clinically significant change on the CORE-OM was observed for 67.9% of treatment completers. Service users reported significant improvements in their health status but did not show changes in their health service usage in the 3-month follow-up period.
APSI provided an accessible service model that was clinically effective in managing a range of mild to moderate mental health difficulties. The cost-effectiveness of the service model may be enhanced by offering a wider range of high-throughput interventions and by increasing the treatment completion rate.
A wetland deposit from the southern Appalachian mountains of North Carolina, USA, has been radiocarbon dated and shows continuous deposition from the early Holocene to the present. Non-coastal records of Holocene paleoenvironments are rare from the southeastern USA. Increased stable carbon isotope ratios (?13C) of sedimentary organic matter and pollen percentages indicate warm, dry early- to mid-Holocene conditions. This interpretation is also supported by n-alkane biomarker data and bulk sedimentary C/N ratios. These warm, dry conditions coincide with a mid-Holocene hypsithermal, or altithermal, documented elsewhere in North America. Our data indicate that the southeastern USA warmed concurrently with much of the rest of the continent during the mid-Holocene. If the current "warming hole" in the southeastern USA persists, during a time of greenhouse gas-induced warming elsewhere, it will be anomalous both in space and time.
Since the discovery in 1989 that mutations in cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) underlie cystic fibrosis (CF), the most common life shortening genetic disorder in Caucasians, it has been possible to identify heterozygous mutation carriers at risk of having affected children. The Human Genetics Society of Australasia has produced a position statement with recommendations in relation to population-based screening for CF. These include: (1) that screening should be offered to all relatives of people with or carriers of CF (cascade testing) as well as to all couples planning to have children or who are pregnant; (2) the minimum CFTR mutation panel to be tested consists of 17 mutations which are those mutations that are associated with typical CF and occur with a frequency of 0.1% or higher among individuals diagnosed with CF in Australasia; (3) that genetic counselling is offered to all couples where both members are known to have one or two CFTR mutations and that such couples are given the opportunity to meet with a physician with expertise in the management of CF as well as a family/individual affected by the condition.
Optical properties of Si nanowire arrays (SiNWs) prepared on p-doped Si(111) and Si(100) substrates are studied. The SiNWs were synthesized by self-assembly electroless metal deposition nanoelectrochemistry in an ionic silver HF solution through selective etching. Total reflectance (Rt) and total diffuse reflectance (Rdt) of SiNWs change drastically in comparison to polished Si. To understand these changes diffuse reflectance (Rd) with polarized incident light was studied. For samples prepared on Si(111), the wavelength integrated Rd (wIRd) shows maxima at certain angle of incidence θ and it does not depend on light polarization. Moreover, Rdt of SiNWs prepared on Si(111) can be modeled as an ensemble of diffuse reflectors. For samples prepared on Si(100) wIRd increases with θ, being greater when the light electric field is parallel to the plane of incidence. Also, Rd spectra show structures due to interference effects. For these reasons SiNWs prepared on Si(100) can be considered as a thin film whose refractive index depends on light polarization.
Reconciliation of paleontological and molecular phylogenetic evidence holds great promise for a better understanding of the temporal succession of cladogenesis and character evolution, especially for taxa with a fragmentary fossil record and uncertain classification. In zoology, studies of this kind have largely been restricted to Bilateria. Hexactinellids (glass sponges) readily lend themselves to test such an approach for early-branching (non-bilaterian) animals: they have a long and rich fossil record, but for certain taxa paleontological evidence is still scarce or ambiguous. Furthermore, there is a lack of consensus for taxonomic interpretations, and discrepancies exist between neontological and paleontological classification systems. Using conservative fossil calibration constraints and the largest molecular phylogenetic data set assembled for this group, we infer divergence times of crown-group Hexactinellida in a Bayesian relaxed molecular clock framework. With some notable exceptions, our results are largely congruent with interpretations of the hexactinellid fossil record, but also indicate long periods of undocumented evolution for several groups. This study illustrates the potential of an integrated molecular/paleobiological approach to reconstructing the evolution of challenging groups of organisms.
A retrospective case–case control study was conducted, including 60 cases with daptomycin-nonsusceptible vancomycin-resistant enterococci (DNS-VRE) matched to cases with daptomycin-susceptible VRE and to uninfected controls (1:1:3 ratio). Immunosuppression, presence of comorbid conditions, and prior exposure to antimicrobials were independent predictors of DNS-VRE, although prior daptomycin exposure occurred rarely. In summary, a case–case control study identified independent risk factors for the isolation of DNS-VRE: immunosuppression, multiple comorbid conditions, and prior exposures to cephalosporines and metronidazole.
Objectives: The objectives of the study were to identify the characteristics of the patients who were commenced in a newly developed opiate substitute prescribing (OSP) programme, to determine their rate of retention and to ascertain the patients' opinions of the service. We also wished to determine rates of blood borne viruses in this population.
Methods: Data were collected from three sources: the Shaftesbury Square Hospital Substitute Prescribing Database, patient charts and an anonymous user views questionnaire. We also conducted viral screening. Inclusion criteria were opiate dependence according to ICD-101 for at least one year, in individuals who were 18 years of age or older. The sample comprised the first 80 patients who attended the service, who were followed up over two years.
Results: A total of 44% of our original cohort remained engaged with the service two years after commencement. Of the remainder, 18% engaged with OSP elsewhere and 13% completed a successful detoxification from all opiate drug use. Factors which were associated with continuation in the programme were prescription of methadone (as compared with buprenorphine), female sex and higher doses of OSP. Patients reported high levels of satisfaction with the service. Of those who were tested for blood borne viruses, more than half were positive for hepatitis C infection.
Conclusions: The response to the development of the opiate substitution programme demonstrated that there was a need in the community which had not been met in the past. Service users who attended the programme reported high levels of satisfaction.
Background: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a recovery group intervention based on compassionate mind training, for individuals with psychosis. In particular, the objective was to improve depression, to develop compassion towards self, and to promote help seeking. Method: A within-subjects design was used. Participants were assessed at the start of group, mid-group (5 weeks), the end of the programme and at 6 week follow-up. Three group programmes were run over the course of a year. Nineteen participants commenced the intervention and 18 completed the programme. Results: Significant improvements were found on the Social Comparison Scale; the Beck Depression Inventory; Other As Shamer Scale; the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory and the General Psychopathology Scale from the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Conclusions: The results provide initial indications of the effectiveness of a group intervention based on the principles of compassionate focused therapy for this population. The findings of this study, alongside implications of further research are discussed.
Opisthoteuthis hardyi was originally described from a single male specimen caught near Shag Rocks (north-west of South Georgia) and no further specimens have been attributed to this species. During research fishing on the Patagonian slope to the south-east of the Falkland Islands 33 specimens of Opisthoteuthis were caught at depths ranging from 630 to 1391 m. Morphological measurements indicated that these specimens were conspecific to the holotype of O. hardyi. The mitochondrial gene 16S rDNA was sequenced from two of these specimens and compared with a published sequence of the holotype and other Opisthoteuthidae to confirm the morphological data. This extends the geographical and bathymetric range of the species, which spans the Antarctic Polar Front. We also expand the original description, providing details of the digestive system and of the female reproductive system, with preliminary estimates of fecundity.
Amongst the four common Ha-ras alleles in both controls and cancer patients, we detected the presence of a polymorphic Xho I site associated specifically with the 6·6 and 7·7 kb Bam HI fragments but absent from the 7·1 and 8·2 kb alleles, as recently reported by others. We have extended this study and report here, the consistent appearance of this Xho I site in unusual alleles close in size to the two common alleles of 6·6 and 7·7 kb, in control lymphoblastoid DNA samples in a variety of tumor DNAs. Unusual alleles grouped around the 7·1 and 8·2 kb common alleles on the other hand, did not possess the Xho I site. The consistent presence of the Xho I site polymorphism, in the unusual Ha-ras alleles surrounding the 6·6 and 7·7 kb common alleles and its absence in alleles around the 7·1 and 8·2 kb common alleles, suggests that the unusual ones are derived from the corresponding common alleles to which they are closest in size.
A study of the reproductive biology of the loliginid squid, Alloteuthis subulata in the North Sea, Irish Sea and Portuguese waters was carried out. A predominance of
small squid (<50 mm ML) during autumn was observed in all three areas.
Multi-modal size-frequency distributions were apparent in both sexes. The
greatest complexity was observed in Portuguese waters, with males exhibiting
possibly four or more modal size classes. Sexually mature squid were found
throughout the year, with generally more mature squid in spring-summer and
fewer in autumn-winter. In Portuguese waters, maturity in both sexes peaked
in spring, whereas maturity in the other areas peaked in summer. Similar
sizes-at-maturity were observed, with male squid maturing over a greater
size range (40–125 mm ML) than females (30–50 mm ML). An apparent
secondary peak in male maturity at 65 mm ML suggests two different
size-maturation patterns in Portuguese waters. Estimates of potential
fecundity in the Irish Sea ranged from
2200–13 500 eggs per female.
Mean egg diameters of 0.45 mm and 1.55 mm were recorded for developing
oocytes and mature ova, respectively. Three to four modal size classes of
oocytes were apparent in each ovary. There was some indication of
latitudinal effects on growth, maturation and reproduction of A. subulata across its
geographic range. The greater complexity of size-structure in warmer waters
suggests that water temperature may be the main factor involved, possibly
through shorter incubation times, faster growth and maturation rates and
extended spawning periods.
Dietary fatty acids (FA) are the major determinants of blood lipids, and measurements of plasma phospholipid FA (PL-FA) composition that reflect the dietary intake of FA may provide insights into the relationships between diet and CHD. We assessed CHD mortality associations with PL-FA (SFA, PUFA and MUFA) levels measured in a nested case–control study of 116 cases of CHD death and 239 controls that were frequency-matched for age and employment grade. The participants had plasma levels of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL-cholesterol, apo B and apo A1, C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen recorded. SFA levels were significantly positively correlated with total cholesterol, LDL-C, apo B, CRP protein and fibrinogen. By contrast, phospholipid-PUFA were inversely associated with CRP, but not with any of the lipids. A higher SFA content (top v. bottom quarter) was associated with a 2-fold higher risk of CHD (OR and 95 % CI: OR 2·12; 95 % CI: 1·13, 3·99), and an equivalent difference in PUFA was associated with a halving in CHD risk (OR 0·49; 95 % CI: 0·26, 0·94), but MUFA was unrelated to CHD risk. These associations were substantially attenuated, after additional adjustment for lipids and inflammatory markers. Higher levels of saturated fat and lower levels of polyunsaturated fats were each associated with a higher risk of CHD in elderly men, and these associations were partly explained by their effects on blood lipids and biomarkers of inflammation.