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As the Inca Empire was predominantly agrarian, the integration of local farming communities into a corporate agricultural system constituted a great challenge for the imperial political economy. The authors thus analyse an unusual circular structure in the Altos de Arica region of northern Chile, which resembles an important building—called ‘sunturhuasi’—in the capital, Cusco. They explore this structure using three-dimensional modelling, identifying its probable use in astronomical observations and hence its clear connection with the Inca agricultural calendar, ultimately suggesting that it was central to an imperial built environment related to the political economy of maize production.
The field of technology and language learning, also known as CALL (computer-assisted language learning), is now a robust area of study informed by research and practice in the fields of language education, computer science, psychology, sociology, cognitive science, cultural studies, and, most of all, applied linguistics and second language acquisition (SLA). As with any other large field of study, some subareas have become the focus of study, often influenced by advances and research in applied linguistics, while others remain to be explored further; among these is the area of technology-mediated second/foreign language (L2) pragmatics, also known as interlanguage pragmatics. The lack of research in this area is puzzling if one considers that pragmatic competence is one of the essential components of communicative competence and that most of the technologies today exist in the service of communication. This article reviews the efforts so far to explore the connections between interlanguage pragmatics and a variety of technologies and innovations, as well as existing resources to bring L2 pragmatic teaching into the language classroom. It then suggests unexplored areas where technology could be used to aid the development of pragmatic competence and where pragmatic theory can inform SLA research.
The increasingly frequent involvement of companies’ line managers in human resource (HR) activities leads us to investigate the strategic value that these managers grant HR. This research focusses on the line managers’ perception of the strategic importance of HR, versus the perception of HR managers themselves, as a relevant factor in line managers’ own involvement within the execution of HR-related tasks. If line managers do not perceive the relevance and strategic importance of HR and its key role in the company’s strategy and performance, it is difficult to guarantee the managers’ commitment and effectiveness in HR management implementation. Based on interviews with HR development and line managers in 100 Spanish firms, we verified discrepancies in HR versus line managers’ perceptions, confirming that the assessment given by the line managers is slightly lower and, in turn, providing us with references to draw useful conclusions for a successful implementation of HR practices.
The well-exposed marine Eocene units from southwestern Patagonia, Argentina, contain useful information for reconstructing regional climate and oceanographic patterns in an area adjacent to the Drake Passage. The aim of this paper is to integrate dinoflagellate cyst data from three sections of the southwestern Austral Basin (Río Turbio Formation) to propose a zonation scheme, which can be applied to other southwestern Atlantic Ocean sites. Assemblages of organic walled dinoflagellate cysts have been analysed in different cropping-out sections and cores, showing the high potential of this fossil group as biostratigraphic markers. Comparison of dinoflagellate cyst events of the upper member of the Río Turbio Formation with calibrated biostratigraphic ranges in the Palaeogene South Pacific Ocean allowed us to date and correlate these sedimentary sections. The resulting zonation consists of four dinoflagellate cyst zones labelled RTF 1 to RTF 4, between the middle Lutetian and late Priabonian. As a final point, we applied dinoflagellate cyst species with importance as palaeoenvironmental markers to assess long-term climatic and oceanographic evolution for the area. This study shows that the endemic–Antarctic dinoflagellate cyst assemblage is dominant during the middle to late Eocene (RTF 1 to RTF 3), while a significant replacement of these taxa by cosmopolitan species characterizes the upper part of the upper member of the Río Turbio Formation (RTF 4). This turnover seems to be a consequence of changes in the ocean circulation patterns forced by deepening of the southern Atlantic gateways (the Drake Passage and the Tasman Gateway).
Prospective studies assessing the association between fibre intake or fibre-rich food consumption and the risk of CVD have often been limited by baseline assessment of diet. Thus far, no study has used yearly repeated measurements of dietary changes during follow-up. Moreover, previous studies included healthy and selected participants who did not represent subjects at high cardiovascular risk. We used yearly repeated measurements of diet to investigate the association between fibre intake and CVD in a Mediterranean cohort of elderly adults at high cardiovascular risk. We followed-up 7216 men (55–80 years) and women (60–80 years) initially free of CVD for up to 7 years in the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea study (registered as ISRCTN35739639). A 137-item validated FFQ was repeated yearly to assess diet. The primary end point, confirmed by a blinded ad hoc Event Adjudication Committee, was a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction and stroke. Time-dependent Cox’s regression models were used to estimate the risk of CVD according to baseline dietary exposures and to their yearly updated changes. We found a significant inverse association for fibre (Pfor trend=0·020) and fruits (Pfor trend=0·024) in age-sex adjusted models, but the statistical significance was lost in fully adjusted models. However, we found a significant inverse association with CVD incidence for the sum of fruit and vegetable consumption. Participants who consumed in total nine or more servings/d of fruits plus vegetables had a hazard ratio 0·60 (95 % CI 0·40, 0·96) of CVD in comparison with those consuming <5 servings/d.
As a whole neurogenetic diseases are a common group of neurological disorders. However, the recognition and molecular diagnosis of these disorders is not always straightforward. Besides, there is a paucity of information regarding the diagnostic yield that specialized neurogenetic clinics could obtain. We performed a prospective, observational, analytical study of the patients seen in a neurogenetic clinic at a tertiary medical centre to assess the diagnostic yield of a comprehensive diagnostic evaluation that included a personalized clinical assessment along with traditional and next-generation sequencing diagnostic tests. We included a cohort of 387 patients from May 2008 to June 2014. For sub-group analysis we selected a sample of patients whose main complaint was the presence of progressive ataxia, to whom we applied a systematic molecular diagnostic algorithm. Overall, a diagnostic mutation was identified in 27·4% of our cohort. However, if we only considered those patients where a molecular test could be performed, the success rate rises to 45%. We obtained diagnostic yields of 23·5 and 57·5% in the global group of ataxic patients and in the subset of ataxic patients with a positive family history, respectively. Thus, about a third of patients evaluated in a neurogenetic clinic could be successfully diagnosed.
Dementia is a significant public health problem. One non-pharmacological therapy that has shown its effectiveness is reminiscence, which is a psychological intervention designed to address issues of particular relevance to older adults. The aim of this study was to examine the benefits of an integrative reminiscence program in elderly people with dementia.
A quasi-experimental design and purposeful sampling were conducted at two retirement homes. Forty-two elderly adults with dementia were studied to measure the effect of the therapy (23 in the experimental group and 19 in the control group). The treatment group activity was held in 10 sessions.
The treatment group significantly improved their depressive symptoms and self-acceptance, positive relations with others, autonomy, and environmental mastery.
This study provides support for the effectiveness of integrative reminiscence therapy (RT) as an intervention in people with dementia, especially in reducing depressive symptoms and improving psychological well-being, with the therapy being effective on personal and emotional variables.
Often the only way to ensure profitability of Lacaune dairy sheep is intensive management, which requires appropriate dry-period treatment to ensure animal productivity and health. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of intramammary antibiotic dry therapy on the performance and health of Lacaune sheep under intensive management. We recorded data for 5981 complete lactation periods that followed a dry period. A total of 2402 lactation periods were preceded by a dry period involving intramammary administration of 300 mg of cephapirin benzathine (antibiotic group) and 3579 lactation periods were preceded by dry periods with no treatment (control group). The following on-farm yield data were collected for individual lactation periods: length of the subsequent lactation period; total milk yield per lactation period; daily milk yield and length of the subsequent dry period. Data on confounding factors that might affect productivity were also recorded, including the individual ewe, number of lactation periods and length of the previous dry period. Milk quality was assessed using data on somatic cell count (SCC) and content of protein and fat taken from the Spanish National Official Milk Yield Recording System. Antibiotic dry therapy significantly improved total yield per lactation period, which was 429±151·1 l in the antibiotic group and 412±165·5 l in the control group, as well as the daily milk yield, which was 1986±497·0 and 1851±543·2 ml/d, respectively (both P<0·0001). The initial dry period was significantly longer in the antibiotic group than in the control group, and dry period length correlated inversely with yield variables such us total yield per lactation period (r=−0·055; P<0·0001) and yield per day in milk (r=−0·039; P<0·0001). As a result, milk yield records systematically underestimated the positive effects of antibiotic dry therapy. Antibiotic dry therapy also significantly improved milk quality. Milk from the antibiotic group showed 50% lower SCC (573±1326 vs. 1022±2126 cells/ml; P<0·0001) and slightly higher content in fat (7·33±0·91 vs. 7·15±0·87%) and protein (5·63±0·44 vs. 5·44±0·4%). The results of this study suggest that cephalosporin dry therapy of Lacaune dairy sheep increases milk production and improves milk quality during subsequent lactation periods.
Bentley et al. bypass the relevance of emotions in decision-making, resulting in a possible over-simplification of behavioral types. We propose integrating emotions, both in the north–south axis (in relation to cognition) as well as in the west–east axis (in relation to social influence), by suggesting a Z-axis, in charge of registering emotional depth and involvement.
To examine the use of vitamin D supplements during infancy among the participants in an international infant feeding trial.
Information about vitamin D supplementation was collected through a validated FFQ at the age of 2 weeks and monthly between the ages of 1 month and 6 months.
Infants (n 2159) with a biological family member affected by type 1 diabetes and with increased human leucocyte antigen-conferred susceptibility to type 1 diabetes from twelve European countries, the USA, Canada and Australia.
Daily use of vitamin D supplements was common during the first 6 months of life in Northern and Central Europe (>80 % of the infants), with somewhat lower rates observed in Southern Europe (>60 %). In Canada, vitamin D supplementation was more common among exclusively breast-fed than other infants (e.g. 71 % v. 44 % at 6 months of age). Less than 2 % of infants in the USA and Australia received any vitamin D supplementation. Higher gestational age, older maternal age and longer maternal education were study-wide associated with greater use of vitamin D supplements.
Most of the infants received vitamin D supplements during the first 6 months of life in the European countries, whereas in Canada only half and in the USA and Australia very few were given supplementation.
Evidence has grown supporting the role for short sleep duration as an independent risk factor for weight gain and obesity. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between sleep duration and dietary quality in European adolescents. The sample consisted of 1522 adolescents (aged 12·5–17·5 years) participating in the European multi-centre cross-sectional ‘Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence’ study. Sleep duration was estimated by a self-reported questionnaire. Dietary intake was assessed by two 24 h recalls. The Diet Quality Index for Adolescents with Meal index (DQI-AM) was used to calculate overall dietary quality, considering the components dietary equilibrium, dietary diversity, dietary quality and a meal index. An average sleep duration of ≥ 9 h was classified as optimal, between 8 and 9 h as borderline insufficient and < 8 h as insufficient. Sleep duration and the DQI-AM score were positively associated (β = 0·027, r 0·130, P< 0·001). Adolescents with insufficient (62·05 (sd 14·18)) and borderline insufficient sleep (64·25 (sd 12·87)) scored lower on the DQI-AM than adolescents with an optimal sleep duration (64·57 (sd 12·39)) (P< 0·001; P= 0·018). The present study demonstrated in European adolescents that short sleep duration was associated with a lower dietary quality. This supports the hypothesis that the health consequences of insufficient sleep may be mediated by the relationship of insufficient sleep to poor dietary quality.
Food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG) aim to address the nutritional requirements at population level in order to prevent diseases and promote a healthy lifestyle. Diet quality indices can be used to assess the compliance with these FBDG. The present study aimed to investigate whether the newly developed Diet Quality Index for Adolescents (DQI-A) is a good surrogate measure for adherence to FBDG, and whether adherence to these FBDG effectively leads to better nutrient intakes and nutritional biomarkers in adolescents. Participants included 1804 European adolescents who were recruited in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) Study. Dietary intake was assessed by two, non-consecutive 24 h recalls. A DQI-A score, considering the components' dietary quality, diversity and equilibrium, was calculated. Associations between the DQI-A and food and nutrient intakes and blood concentration biomarkers were investigated using multilevel regression analysis corrected for centre, age and sex. DQI-A scores were associated with food intake in the expected direction: positive associations with nutrient-dense food items, such as fruits and vegetables, and inverse associations with energy-dense and low-nutritious foods. On the nutrient level, the DQI-A was positively related to the intake of water, fibre and most minerals and vitamins. No association was found between the DQI-A and total fat intake. Furthermore, a positive association was observed with 25-hydroxyvitamin D, holo-transcobalamin and n-3 fatty acid serum levels. The present study has shown good validity of the DQI-A by confirming the expected associations with food and nutrient intakes and some biomarkers in blood.
Tryptophan, a precursor of important molecules such as serotonin, melatonin and niacin, is an essential amino acid for dogs. In pigs, tryptophan supplementation has been shown to induce a significant increase in food intake. The aim of the present study was to assess whether long-term tryptophan supplementation increases voluntary food intake in dogs and to observe whether this was accompanied by a change in serum ghrelin. In the present study, sixteen adult Beagle dogs were used, with four male and four female dogs fed diets supplemented with tryptophan (1 g/dog per d) during 81 d (Trp) and four male and four female dogs that were not supplemented (control). A voluntary food intake test was performed during 5 d following the supplementation period. The Trp group tended to show a higher food intake during the voluntary food intake test (58·0 (se 5·37) v. 77·5 (se 3·65) g/kg metabolic weight per d; P = 0·074). No significant differences were found for serum ghrelin concentrations.
Negative effects of poaching on seabird populations are not usually evaluated quantitatively when assessing seabird colony conservation status, nor are they generally considered a major concern. We demonstrate that poaching is still intense in the Canary Islands, and has negative consequences for the conservation of seabird colonies. We quantified the effects of poaching of Cory’s Shearwater fledglings on breeding success on different islands in the Canaries, comparing colonies that suffer from intense, medium, or no poaching. Poaching reduced the breeding success of affected colonies to almost a third, potentially causing the future extinction of the colony. Only colonies with intense wardening campaigns reached high values of reproductive success, showing that government surveillance in conjunction with volunteers from different NGOs is a very effective approach in reducing poaching. A population sensitivity analysis was also conducted to provide data on the factors that most affect the performance of the model. Although population growth and mean final population size varied with increases and decreases in mortality and carrying capacity, only harvesting resulted in a probability of 100% of extinction in 20–40 years. To promote seabird conservation in regions such as the Canary Islands, a core archipelago for seabird species in the Atlantic, poaching control should be elevated by society to a level of urgency, requiring dedicated funding and mobilisation of experts and volunteers to adequately address it through education, prevention and enforcement.
Little information is available as to whether doses of iodide similar to those recommended in clinical practice for the prevention of iodine deficiency in pregnant women affect thyroid function. The aim of the present study was to analyse whether doses of iodide can affect thyroid function in adults, and evaluate its effect on plasma markers of oxidative stress, inflammation and acute-phase proteins. A total of thirty healthy volunteers (ten men and twenty women) with normal thyroid function were randomly assigned to three groups (n 10). Each group received a daily dose of 100, 200 or 300 μg of iodide in the form of KI for 6 months. Free tetraiodothyronine (FT4) levels at day 60 of the study were higher in the groups treated with 200 and 300 μg (P = 0·01), and correlated with the increase in urinary iodine (r 0·50, P = 0·007). This correlation lost its significance after adjustment for the baseline FT4. The baseline urinary iodine and FT4 correlated positively with the baseline glutathione peroxidase. On day 60, urinary iodine correlated with C-reactive protein (r 0·461, P = 0·018), and free triiodothyronine correlated with IL-6 (r − 0·429, P = 0·025). On day 60, the changes produced in urinary iodine correlated significantly with the changes produced in α1-antitrypsin (r 0·475, P = 0·014) and ceruloplasmin (r 0·599, P = 0·001). The changes in thyroid-stimulating hormone correlated significantly with the changes in α1-antitrypsin (r − 0·521, P = 0·005) and ceruloplasmin (r − 0·459, P = 0·016). In conclusion, the administration of an iodide supplement between 100 and 300 μg/d did not modify thyroid function in a population with adequate iodine intake. The results also showed a slight anti-inflammatory and antioxidative action of iodide.
Survey and excavation by the Burials and Identity team of the Desert Migrations Project (DMP) focused in 2011 on the so-called Royal Cemetery of the Garamantes close to the Jarma escarpment, a few km south of Old Jarma. This Late Garamantian cemetery contains two distinct zones (GSC030 and GSC031) of monumental rectangular stepped tombs, which were plaster-coated and fronted by massive offering tables and stelae. Previous dating evidence has suggested they span the fourth to sixth centuries AD. However, many questions remain about the cemetery and the overall recording of the monuments had hitherto been left incomplete. The 2011 work focused on the excavation of one of the larger monuments in GSC030 and several of the smaller tombs in the neighbouring GSC031, along with an overall survey of both cemetery areas and a detailed record of the stelae and offering tables still present in considerable numbers. In addition, the team made a survey along the escarpment between the Royal Cemetery and Zinkekrā, completing and uniting the various surveys carried out by the DMP around Zinkekrā, Watwāt and the Jarma Escarpment. A survey of foggaras and settlement in the ad-Dīsa embayment was also undertaken.
The fourth season of the Burials and Identity component of the Desert Migrations Project in 2010 focused on completion of excavation work at two main cemeteries (TAG001 and TAG012) and smaller-scale sampling work at a number of nearby cemeteries. The investigation of a number of burials in a semi-nucleated escarpment cemetery TAG063 produced interesting new information on Proto-Urban Garamantian funerary rites, dating to the latter centuries BC. The excavations at TAG001 were extended to two areas of the cemetery characterised by different burial types to the stepped tombs that were excavated in 2009. A second type of fairly monumental burial was identified, but these had been heavily robbed and it was not possible to demonstrate conclusively that these pre-dated the stepped tombs. Most of the other burials excavated were simple shaft burials and were relatively sparsely furnished with imported goods, in comparison with the larger tombs, though quite a lot of organic material was identified (matting, wood, gourds, textiles and leather). At TAG012, a series of additional mudbrick tombs was emptied. All had been robbed, but pockets of the original fill and associated finds survived intact, yielding some interesting assemblages. The majority of these tombs appear to be Late Garamantian, though some contained artefacts from much earlier times.
Procrastination is a common behavior, mainly in school settings. Only a few studies have analyzed the associations of academic procrastination with students' personal and family variables. In the present work, we analyzed the impact of socio-personal variables (e.g., parents' education, number of siblings, school grade level, and underachievement) on students' academic procrastination profiles. Two independent samples of 580 and 809 seventh to ninth graders, students attending the last three years of Portuguese Compulsory Education, have been taken. The findings, similar in both studies, reveal that procrastination decreases when the parents' education is higher, but it increases along with the number of siblings, the grade level, and the underachievement. The results are discussed in view of the findings of previous research. The implications for educational practice are also analyzed.