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This article offers an analysis of the transnational discursive construction processes informing Latin American security governance in the aftermath of 9/11. It demonstrates that the Global War on Terror provided an opportunity for external and aligned local knowledge producers in the security establishments throughout the Americas to reframe Latin America's security problems through the promotion of a militarised security epistemology, and derived policies, centred on the region's ‘convergent threats’. In tracing the discursive repercussions of this epistemic reframing, the article shows that, by tapping into these discourses, military bureaucracies throughout the Americas were able to overcome their previous institutional marginalisation vis-à-vis civilian agencies. This development contributed to the renaissance of counter-insurgency and counter-terrorism discourses and policies in the region, allowing countries such as Colombia and Brazil to reposition themselves globally by exporting their military expertise for confronting post-9/11 threats beyond the region.
The majority of running geothermal plants worldwide are located in geological settings with convection- or advection-dominant heat transport. In Germany as in most regions in Europe, conduction is the dominating heat transport mechanism, with a resulting average geothermal gradient. The geothermal play type concept is a modern methodology to group geothermal resources according to their geological setting, and characteristic heat transport mechanisms. In particular, the quantity of heat transport is related to fluid flow in natural or engineered geothermal reservoirs. Hence, the permeability structure is a key element for geothermal play typing. Following the existing geothermal play type catalogue, four major geothermal play types can be identified for Germany: intracratonic basins, foreland basins and basement/crystalline rock provinces as conduction-dominated play types, and extensional terrains as the convection-dominated play type. The installed capacity of geothermal facilities sums up to 397.1 MWth by the end of 2018. District heating plants accounted for the largest portion, with about 337.0 MWth. The majority of these installations are located in the play type ‘foreland basin’, namely the Molasse Basin in southern Germany. The stratigraphic unit for geothermal use is the Upper Jurassic, also known as ‘Malm’ formation, a carbonate reservoir with high variability in porosity and permeability. Recently drilled wells in the southernmost Molasse Basin indicate the Upper Jurassic as a tight, fracture-controlled reservoir, not usable for conventional hydrothermal well doublets. Our new data compilation including the recently drilled deep geothermal well Geretsried reveals the relation of porosity and permeability to depth. The results suggest that obviously diagenetic processes control permeability with depth in carbonate rock, diminishing the predictability of reservoir porosity and permeability. The play type concept helps to delineate these property variations in play type levels because it is based on geological constraints, common for exploration geology. Following the general idea of play typing, the results from this play analysis can be transferred to geological analogues as carbonate rock play levels in varying depth.
Delirium is a common complication in palliative care patients, especially in the terminal phase of the illness. To date, evidence regarding risk factors and prognostic outcomes of delirium in this vulnerable population remains sparse.
In this prospective observational cohort study at a tertiary care center, 410 palliative care patients were included. Simple and multiple logistic regression models were used to identify associations between predisposing and precipitating factors and delirium in palliative care patients.
The prevalence of delirium in this palliative care cohort was 55.9% and reached 93% in the terminally ill. Delirium was associated with prolonged hospitalization (p < 0.001), increased care requirements (p < 0.001) and health care costs (p < 0.001), requirement for institutionalization (OR 0.11; CI 0.069–0.171; p < 0.001), and increased mortality (OR 18.29; CI 8.918–37.530; p < 0.001). Predisposing factors for delirium were male gender (OR 2.19; CI 1.251–3.841; p < 0.01), frailty (OR 15.28; CI 5.885–39.665; p < 0.001), hearing (OR 3.52; CI 1.721–7.210; p < 0.001), visual impairment (OR 3.15; CI 1.765–5.607; p < 0.001), and neoplastic brain disease (OR 3.63; CI 1.033–12.771; p < 0.05). Precipitating factors for delirium were acute renal failure (OR 6.79; CI 1.062–43.405; p < 0.05) and pressure sores (OR 3.66; CI 1.102–12.149; p < 0.05).
Significance of results
Our study identified several predisposing and precipitating risk factors for delirium in palliative care patients, some of which can be targeted early and modified to reduce symptom burden.
The process of building an open source library of simulated field desorption maps for differently oriented synthetic tips of the face-centered cubic, body-centered cubic, and hexagonal-close-packed crystal structures using the open source software TAPSim is reported. Specifically, the field evaporation of a total set of 4 × 101 single-crystalline tips was simulated. Their lattices were oriented randomly to sample economically the fundamental zone of crystal orientations. Such data are intended to facilitate the interpretation of low-density zone lines and poles that are observed on detector hit maps during Atom Probe Tomography (APT) experiments. The datasets and corresponding tools have been made publicly available to the APT community in an effort to provide better access to simulated atom probe datasets. In addition, a computational performance analysis was conducted, from which recommendations are made as to which key tasks should be optimized in the future to improve the parallel efficiency of TAPSim.
The mechanical deformation behavior of nanocomposite metals depends on the dimensions of their constituents, due to the interactions of dislocations with grain and phase boundaries. It is now becoming apparent that the mechanical behavior of these materials also depends on the constituent shapes. This article summarizes experimental and modeling investigations on two types of metal nanocomposites composed of intricately interpenetrating phases—those formed by phase separation in physical vapor codeposited alloys and those synthesized by liquid-metal dealloying. The opportunities and challenges these materials present for investigating complex microstructural morphologies and their effects on mechanical behavior are discussed.
This article assesses the causes of the crisis of detention in Latin America. It is argued that this crisis, which manifests itself in overpopulation of the region's prison systems, deficient infrastructure, prison informality and violence propelled ultimately by political processes, is mostly related to, on the one hand, disastrous human rights conditions inside Latin American prisons, and on other, the political denial of these conditions. This denial produces a state of institutional abandonment that is preserved by the interests of politicians and bureaucrats, who are engaged in denying prison violence and human rights abuses while simultaneously calling for more punishment and imprisonment.
The current study investigates potential pathways from socio-economic status (SES) to BMI in the adult population, considering psychological domains of eating behaviour (restrained eating, uncontrolled eating, emotional eating) as potential mediators stratified for sex.
Data were derived from the population-based cross-sectional LIFE-Adult-Study. Parallel-mediation models were conducted to obtain the total, direct and indirect effects of psychological eating behaviour domains on the association between SES and BMI for men and for women.
We studied 5935 participants aged 18 to 79 years.
Uncontrolled eating mediated the association between SES and BMI in men only and restrained eating in both men and women. Emotional eating did not act as mediator in this relationship. The total effect of eating behaviour domains on the association between SES and BMI was estimated as β=−0·03 (se 0·02; 95 % CI −0·062, −0·003) in men and β=−0·18 (se 0·02; 95 % CI −0·217, −0·138) in women.
Our findings do not indicate a strong overall mediation effect of the eating behaviour domains restrained eating, uncontrolled eating and emotional eating on the association between SES and BMI. Further research on other pathways of this association is strongly recommended. Importantly, our findings indicate that, independent from one’s social position, focusing on psychological aspects in weight reduction might be a promising approach.
There is an ongoing controversial discussion as to whether n-alkane lipid biomarkers—and organic matter of loess in general—reflect a synsedimentary paleoenvironmental/climate signal or whether they are significantly affected by postdepositional “contamination,” for example related to root and rhizomicrobial activity. In order to address this issue at our study site (the Middle to Late Weichselian loess-paleosol sequence Gleina in Saxony, Germany), we determined and compared radiocarbon ages of bulk n-alkanes and sedimentation ages, as assessed by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating. The bulk n-alkanes of the four dated samples yielded calibrated 14C ages ranging from 24.1 to 49.7 cal ka BP (95.4% probability ranges). While the three uppermost n-alkane samples are well within the range or even slightly older than the OSL-inferred sedimentation ages, the lowermost n-alkane sample is slightly younger than the OSL ages. There is hence little or no evidence at our study site for n-alkanes in loess-paleosol sequences being significantly “contaminated” by deep subsoil rooting or microbial processes. We propose a 14C isotope mass balance calculation for estimating such contaminations quantitatively. Radiocarbon dating of bulk n-alkanes might have great potential for Quaternary research, and we encourage further comparative 14C and OSL studies.
We investigate the physical conditions of the gas, atomic and molecular, in the filaments in the context of Photo-Dissociation Regions (PDRs) using the KOSMA-PDR mode of clumpy clouds. We also compare the [CII] vs. [NII] integrated intensity predictions in Abel et al. 2005 for HII regions and adjacent PDRs in the Galactic disk, and check for their applicability under the extreme physical conditions present in the GC. Our preliminary results show that observed integrated intensities are well reproduced by the PDR model. The gas is exposed to a relatively low Far-UV field between 102 – 103 Draine fields. The total volume hydrogen density is well constrained between 104 – 105 cm−3. The hydrogen ionization rate due to cosmic-rays varies between 10−15 and 4× 10−15 s−1, with the highest value ~ 10−14 s−1 found towards G0.07+0.04. Our results show that the line-of-sight contribution to the total distance of the filaments to the Arches Cluster is not negligible. The spatial distribution of the [CII]/[NII] ratio shows that the integrated intensity ratios are fairly homogeneously distributed for values below 10 in energy units. Calculations including variation on the [C/N] abundance ratio show that tight constraints on this ratio are needed to reproduce the observations.
Reconstructing the evolution of arid landscapes is challenged by limited availability of appropriate environmental archives. A widespread surface feature — stone pavement — traps aeolian fines and forms a special accretionary archive. Seven stone pavement-covered sections on basalt flows in the eastern Mojave Desert are condensed into a composite section, comprising five sedimentological units supported by an OSL-based chronology. Three of the units are of accretionary nature and each is covered by a stone pavement. They were deposited > 50.9–36.6 ka, < 36.6–14.2 ka and < 14.2 ka, and they are intimately coupled with the history of nearby Lake Mojave, which advances the current understanding of regional aeolian activity. End-member modeling analysis of grain-size distributions yielded seven sediment transport regimes. The accretionary system operates in two modes: A) episodic formation of a stone pavement by lateral processes once a vesicular horizon has formed on a barren surface; and B) accretion of dust and eventual burial of the clast layer. These findings improve current concepts about stone pavement evolution and their environmental proxy function in arid landscapes. Stone pavement-covered accretionary deposits are a new key archive that allows quantifying the relative importance of dust accretion, slope processes, soil formation and vegetation cover.
This paper provides nationally representative data on how current and past mental disorders are related to functional disability and health-related quality of life (QoL).
Results are based on a nationally representative sample (DEGS1-MH; n = 4483 aged 18–79). Respondents were examined by clinical interviewers with the DSM-IV Composite International Diagnostic Interview (DIA-X/M-CIDI). Functional disability, i.e. number of disability days in the past 4 weeks, and QoL, i.e. mental (MCS) and physical (PCS) component scale of the SF-36V2, were examined in subjects with 12-month mental disorders (= active cases [AC]) and compared to (a) subjects who never met diagnostic criteria (= unaffected individuals [UAI]), and (b) those with a history of mental disorders but not meeting the diagnostic criteria in the past 12 months (= non-active cases [NAC]; partially or fully remitted).
In comparison to UAI (mean: 1.9), AC reveals a 2–3 fold disability days/month (5.4, P < .001) and a substantially reduced MCS (UAI: 52.1; AC: 43.3, P < .001). NAC had a similar number of disability days as UAI, but significantly reduced MCS scores (49.9; P < .001). Disability days and QoL decrements were highest in internalizing disorders including somatoform disorders and most pronounced in comorbid cases.
By and large, findings of a previous study were confirmed and extended for this nationally representative German sample. 12-month mental disorders, particularly internalizing, including somatoform disorders, are associated with high levels of disability and increased health-related QoL decrements. Partial or complete remission of the mental disorders is associated with a normalization of the numbers of disability days.
The reliability of InAlGaN multiple quantum well LEDs emitting around 308 nm has been investigated. The UV-B LEDs were stressed at constant current and current density, while the heat sink temperature was varied between 15°C and 80°C. The results reveal two different modes of the decrease of the optical power during aging. First, a fast reduction of the optical power within the first 100 h (mode 1) can be observed, followed by a slower degradation for operation times >100 h (mode 2). Mode 1 can be described as an initial degradation activation process which saturates after a certain time, whereas the second degradation mode can be described by a square-root time dependence of the optical power, suggesting a diffusion process to be involved. Both degradation modes are accompanied by changes of the I-V characteristic, particularly the reverse-bias leakage current and the drive voltage. Furthermore, the degradation behavior is strongly influenced by the temperature. Both, the maximum reduction of the optical power and the increase of the leakage current become stronger at higher temperatures.
We study the coefficients of algebraic functions
∑n≥0fnzn. First, we recall the too-little-known fact that these coefficients
fn always admit a closed form. Then we study their asymptotics, known to be
of the type fn ~ CAnnα. When the function is a power series
associated to a context-free grammar, we solve a folklore conjecture: the
critical exponents α cannot be 1/3 or −5/2; they in fact
belong to a proper subset of the dyadic numbers. We initiate the study of the
set of possible values for A. We extend what Philippe Flajolet
called the Drmota–Lalley–Woods theorem (which states that
α=−3/2 when the dependency graph associated to the
algebraic system defining the function is strongly connected). We fully
characterize the possible singular behaviours in the non-strongly connected
case. As a corollary, the generating functions of certain lattice paths and
planar maps are not determined by a context-free grammar (i.e.,
their generating functions are not ℕ-algebraic). We give examples of
Gaussian limit laws (beyond the case of the
Drmota–Lalley–Woods theorem), and examples of non-Gaussian
limit laws. We then extend our work to systems involving non-polynomial entire
functions (non-strongly connected systems, fixed points of entire functions with
positive coefficients). We give several closure properties for
ℕ-algebraic functions. We end by discussing a few extensions of our
results (infinite systems of equations, algorithmic aspects).