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Three new Llandovery (early Silurian) crinoids from Estonia provide an improved understanding of the paleogeographic aspects of the crinoid diversification following the end-Ordovician extinctions. The new taxa are Euspirocrinus hintsae new species (Rhuddanian eucladid), Oepikicrinus perensae new genus new species (Aeronian camerate), and Rozhnovicrinus isakarae new genus new species (Aeronian eucladid). This brings the total of described Llandovery crinoids in Estonia to eight nominal species and a further three taxa in open nomenclature. The Rhuddanian radiation in Baltica mirrored that on Laurentia and Avalonia and was dominated by Ordovician clades that continued to diversify during the Silurian. Known Aeronian crinoids from Estonia continue these clades, whereas new clades diversified on Laurentia and Avalonia. However, by the Wenlock, a largely cosmopolitan fauna existed on Laurentia, Avalonia, and Baltica.
Carbonate glasses can be formed routinely in the system K2CO3–MgCO3. The enthalpy of formation for one such 0.55K2CO3–0.45MgCO3 glass was determined at 298 K to be 115.00 ± 1.21 kJ/mol by drop solution calorimetry in molten sodium molybdate (3Na2O·MoO3) at 975 K. The corresponding heat of formation from oxides at 298 K was −261.12 ± 3.02 kJ/mol. This ternary glass is shown to be slightly metastable with respect to binary crystalline components (K2CO3 and MgCO3) and may be further stabilized by entropy terms arising from cation disorder and carbonate group distortions. This high degree of disorder is confirmed by 13C MAS NMR measurement of the average chemical shift tensor values, which show asymmetry of the carbonate anion to be significantly larger than previously reported values. Molecular dynamics simulations show that the structure of this carbonate glass reflects the strong interaction between the oxygen atoms in distorted carbonate anions and potassium cations.
An improved understanding of diagnostic and treatment practices for patients with rare primary mitochondrial disorders can support benchmarking against guidelines and establish priorities for evaluative research. We aimed to describe physician care for patients with mitochondrial diseases in Canada, including variation in care.
We conducted a cross-sectional survey of Canadian physicians involved in the diagnosis and/or ongoing care of patients with mitochondrial diseases. We used snowball sampling to identify potentially eligible participants, who were contacted by mail up to five times and invited to complete a questionnaire by mail or internet. The questionnaire addressed: personal experience in providing care for mitochondrial disorders; diagnostic and treatment practices; challenges in accessing tests or treatments; and views regarding research priorities.
We received 58 survey responses (52% response rate). Most respondents (83%) reported spending 20% or less of their clinical practice time caring for patients with mitochondrial disorders. We identified important variation in diagnostic care, although assessments frequently reported as diagnostically helpful (e.g., brain magnetic resonance imaging, MRI/MR spectroscopy) were also recommended in published guidelines. Approximately half (49%) of participants would recommend “mitochondrial cocktails” for all or most patients, but we identified variation in responses regarding specific vitamins and cofactors. A majority of physicians recommended studies on the development of effective therapies as the top research priority.
While Canadian physicians’ views about diagnostic care and disease management are aligned with published recommendations, important variations in care reflect persistent areas of uncertainty and a need for empirical evidence to support and update standard protocols.
Privatization is closely associated with the ideological turn to neoliberalism and regarded as a cornerstone of Britain’s “Thatcherite project.” Margaret Thatcher’s Conservative government did not undertake its major privatizations of state-owned businesses until its second term began in 1983. We argue in this article, however, that the 1980 disposal by the National Enterprise Board of its controlling interest in the engineering and electronics company Ferranti offers significant insights into the development of privatization policy and practice, as well as the changing role of the state in British business. This disposal reflected the early caution of some of the Thatcher government’s actions but contributed to fulfillment of an electoral commitment and provided valuable privatization experience in addressing difficult financial, industrial, and political issues.
The Kalana Lagerstätte of early Aeronian (Llandovery, Silurian) age in central Estonia preserves a diverse shallow marine biota dominated by non-calcified algae. This soft-tissue flora and decalcified and calcified crinoids are preserved in situ, in a lens of microlaminated, dolomitized micrite interbedded in a sequence of dolomitized packstones and wackestones. Although the Lagerstätte is dominated by non-calcified algae, crinoids (together with brachiopods and gastropods) are among the most common organisms that were originally comprised of a carbonate skeleton. Two new crinoids are described from this unit, Kalanacrinus mastikae n. gen. n. sp. (large camerate) and Tartucrinus kalanaensis n. gen. n. sp. (small disparid). Interestingly, these two crinoids display contrasting preservation, with the more common large camerate preserved primarily as a decalcified organic residue, whereas the smaller disparid is preserved primarily in calcite. Preservation was assessed using elemental mapping of C, Ca, S, and Si. Columns have the highest portion of Ca, once living soft tissue is indicated by C, S was dispersed as pyrite or associated with organics, and Si is probably associated with clay minerals in the matrix. This new fauna increases our understanding of the crinoid radiation on Baltica following Late Ordovician extinctions.
Thirteen bryozoan species are described from the Brewer Dock (Hickory Corners) Member of the Reynales Formation (lower Silurian, Aeronian) at the locality Hickory Corners in western New York, USA. Three species are new: trepostomes Homotrypa niagarensis n. sp. and Leioclema adsuetum n. sp. and the rhabdomesine cryptostome Moyerella parva n. sp. Only one species, Hennigopora apta Perry and Hattin, 1960, developed obligatory encrusting colonies whereas the others produced erect ramose colonies of various thicknesses and shapes: cylindrical, branched, and lenticular. Bryozoans display high abundance and richness within the rock. This fauna is characteristic of a moderately agitated environment with a stable substrate. The identified species reveal paleobiogeographic connections to other Silurian localities of New York as well as Ohio and Indiana (USA) and Anticosti (Canada).
This contribution discusses results obtained from 3-D neutron diffraction and 2-D fabric analyser in situ deformation experiments on laboratory-prepared polycrystalline deuterated ice and ice containing a second phase. The two-phase samples used in the experiments are composed of an ice matrix with (1) air bubbles, (2) rigid, rhombohedral-shaped calcite and (3) rheologically soft, platy graphite. Samples were tested at 10°C below the melting point of deuterated ice at ambient pressures, and two strain rates of 1 × 10−5 s−1 (fast) and 2.5 × 10−6 s−1 (medium). Nature and distribution of the second phase controlled the rheological behaviour of the ice by pinning grain boundary migration. Peak stresses increased with the presence of second-phase particles and during fast strain rate cycles. Ice-only samples exhibit well-developed crystallographic preferred orientations (CPOs) and dynamically recrystallized microstructures, typifying deformation via dislocation creep, where the CPO intensity is influenced in part by the strain rate. CPOs are accompanied by a concentration of [c]-axes in cones about the compression axis, coinciding with increasing activity of prismatic-<a> slip activity. Ice with second phases, deformed in a relatively slower strain rate regime, exhibit greater grain boundary migration and stronger CPO intensities than samples deformed at higher strain rates or strain rate cycles.
Electron and proton microprobes, along with electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis were used to study the microstructure of the contemporary Al–Cu–Li alloy AA2099-T8. In electron probe microanalysis, wavelength and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry were used in parallel with soft X-ray emission spectroscopy (SXES) to characterize the microstructure of AA2099-T8. The electron microprobe was able to identify five unique compositions for constituent intermetallic (IM) particles containing combinations of Al, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn. A sixth IM type was found to be rich in Ti and B (suggesting TiB2), and a seventh IM type contained Si. EBSD patterns for the five constituent IM particles containing Al, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn indicated that they were isomorphous with four phases in the 2xxx series aluminium alloys including Al6(Fe, Mn), Al13(Fe, Mn)4 (two slightly different compositions), Al37Cu2Fe12 and Al7Cu2Fe. SXES revealed that Li was present in some constituent IM particles. Al SXES mapping revealed an Al-enriched (i.e., Cu, Li-depleted) zone in the grain boundary network. From the EBSD analysis, the kernel average misorientation map showed higher levels of localized misorientation in this region, suggesting greater deformation or stored energy. Proton-induced X-ray emission revealed banding of the TiB2 IM particles and Cu inter-band enrichment.
Glioblastomas are the most frequent and aggressive primary brain tumor in adults and despite recent therapeutic advances, they are resistant to treatment. Increasing malignancy of gliomas correlates with an increase in cellularity and a poorly organized tumor vasculature, leading to insufficient blood supply, hypoxic areas, and ultimately to the formation of necrosis. Hypoxia induces direct or indirect changes in the biology of solid tumor and their microenvironment through the activation of HIF transcription factors, leading to increased aggressiveness and tumor resistance to therapy. Not much is known about the epigenetic alterations induced by hypoxia and how they could alter tumor biology. In the present study, we have utilized PIMO as a specific marker of hypoxia in glioblastoma patients, treated with PIMO preoperatively. We have estimated PIMO positivity in each tumor (5-45%) and determined that it positively correlates with the hypoxia marker CA IX (r=0.57). In addition, 10 surgical PIMO cases were dissociated, immune labeled using PIMO antibody, followed by DNA isolation and methylation profiling. Our analysis of differentially top 4000 differentially methylated probes suggests that PIMO-positive (hypoxic) cells are differentially methylated compared to the PIMO-negative cells and these changes are associated with genes involved in hypoxic cellular response. We will validate these findings in additional glioblastoma cases and assess the mechanism of these epigenetic alterations in vitro in glioma stem cell culture conditions and upon exposure of the cells hypoxic conditions.
A bryozoan-dominated fauna that inhabited small caves underneath a carbonate hardground is here described from the Corryville Formation (Upper Ordovician, Katian) exposed near Washington, Mason County, Kentucky, USA. The dominant bryozoan, Stigmatella personata (a trepostome), is found both growing downwards from the cave ceilings and upwards on the exposed hardground surface above. Another trepostome, Monticulipora, is a minor component of the cave fauna. There are few discernible anatomical differences between the bryozoan colonies that grew upwards in presumably well-lit waters and those that grew downwards in the gloomy caves. The pendant, cave-dwelling S. personata in some cases appears to have longer zooecial tubes than its exposed equivalent. The colonies of S. personata are rounded mounds with multiple layers formed by self-overgrowth. The overgrowths in both downward and upward growing forms are marked by thin layers of sediment infilling the upper zooecial chambers in the older portion of the colony. We suggest that biofilms developed on patches of the colony where the zooids had died. Sediment adhered to these surfaces and the colony then overgrew the patches, trapping sediment within the skeleton. The bryozoan zoaria and the carbonate hardground are extensively bored by the cylindrical ichnogenus Trypanites that occasionally contain cylindrical calcite-filled tubes similar to “ghosts” of organic materials. Bioclaustrations are present in some of the bryozoan skeletons. This cave fauna is one of few submarine examples known from the Paleozoic. It supports the hypothesis that early cave-dwelling organisms were little differentiated from their exposed counterparts.
Mesoporous silicas were synthesized via a surfactant-templated sol-gel route using castor oil as the templating agent under acidic medium. The resulting silicas were subsequently amine functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (NH2-MTS), [3-(2-aminoethylamino)-propyl]trimethoxysilane (NN-MTS), and [3-(diethylamino)propyl]trimethoxysilane(DN-MTS) to introduce surface basicity. Surface physicochemical properties were characterized by field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEGSEM), nitrogen porosimetry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and diffuse reflectance infrared fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS). As-synthesised materials exhibit type IV adsorption-desorption isotherms characteristic of mesoporous structures. Clusters of spherical shaped materials were observed by FEGSEM, suggesting growth of silica occurs within colloidal dispersions. High-resolution N 1s XP spectra and DRIFT spectra confirmed the presence of amine groups in the organo-amine functionalised mesoporous silicas. The amine functionalised mesoporous silicas were active for the transesterification of tributyrin with methanol, with conversion found to increase from NH2-MTS< NN-MTS< DN-MTS.
There has been limited application of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) to the treatment of distressing visual hallucinations (VH) in people with psychosis. Preliminary research applying interventions to a novel presenting issue are enhanced by utilizing designs that allow strong inferences to be made about the effect of the intervention. Hence, this study aimed to measure change in appraisal, affect, and behaviour as a consequence of CBT VH, to improve understanding of the process of change. A multiple-baseline experimental single-case design methodology was used with five participants who received a CBT VH treatment package. Participants used daily diary measures to record appraisals, affect, and behaviours related to the distressing VH. Standardized measures were completed at each phase change. Four individuals completed therapy. Formal visual analysis of the data supported by statistical analysis indicated significant changes for appraisal and affect, with replication across three participants. Changes in frequency of VH were reported in two cases. Change was not evident on the standardized measures. This study replicates and extends the findings in showing potential value of CBT VH. Further research should consider alternative methods of capturing behavioural change. Attempts should also be made to replicate across therapists and centres.
Social preferences and third-party enforcement of formal contracts are two mechanisms that facilitate performance of an agreement. The standard argument is that formal, enforceable contracts substitute when the social preferences of trust and trustworthiness are lacking. We explore the alternative hypothesis that trust and contract enforcement are complements. We measure social preferences from both a Trust Game and a social values survey, using them as explanatory variables in a Contract Game. We find that both increased contract enforcement and high trusting preferences lead to enhanced rates of contract formation and larger investments. There is an important interaction effect, where trusting individuals enter into agreements at a greater rate and make larger investments when enforcement is greater. Thus, contracts and trust complement one another.
Control of cucurbit pests, such as striped cucumber beetle (Acalymma vittatum), spotted cucumber beetle (Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi) and squash bug (Anasa tristis), in organic systems is difficult due to a lack of effective insecticide options. This has led to the development of many integrated pest management techniques, such as use of row covers, crop rotation and cover crops. This study explored the novel use of strip tillage and row covers to reduce pest pressure in summer squash (Cucurbita pepe) and muskmelon (Cucumis melo) production systems. Results showed that although strip tillage reduced striped cucumber beetle and squash bug numbers, there was a yield reduction in both crops compared with the plasticulture system. Row cover increased marketable yield in both systems, with the highest yield being in the plasticulture system. Unmarketable fruit directly attributed to insect damage was higher in the plasticulture systems, but was not significantly different when compared with the strip tillage system. Although there are many documented positive attributes of strip tillage, results from this study indicate that a combination of plasticulture and row cover may be a superior system for organic cucurbit production.
Ice cores (∼4 m long) obtained from areas of different surface velocities near the terminus of Sørsdal Glacier, East Antarctica, have been investigated using two versions of a fabric analyser (G50). In sections parallel to the flow plane, the microstructure is typically interlocking with elongate grains that parallel air-bubble elongation, X, reflecting their development in an earlier ductile regime. The c-axis fabric patterns vary with respect to X and vary from single–double maxima to asymmetric small-circle girdles oblique to the planar foliation, which can be attributed to a simple shear regime. The siteto-site variations in the c-axis patterns can be related to areas of different surface velocities, the asymmetry of fabrics correlating with localized strain variations and differences in the deformation path, but not to the current strain pattern recorded by the near-surface deformation conditions. Overprinting fractures have little effect on microstructure except for local dissolution and precipitation along stylolitic surfaces. Comparison of results from the two different fabric analysers reveals that with a higher pixel resolution the incorporation of additional monochromatic light-emitting diodes and repositioning of a retarder plate produce more reliable c-axis measurements.
Layered and polycrystalline ice was experimentally deformed in general shear involving axial compression (strain magnitude 0.5-17%) and simple shear (strain magnitude γ = 0.1-1.4). As the temperature is increased from -20°C to -2°C, there is at least a twofold enhancement in octahedral shear strain rate, which coincides with the onset of extensive dynamic recrystallization and a change in grain-size distribution at -15°C. Between -150C and -10°C the c-axis preferred orientation rapidly evolves with the initiation of two-maxima fabrics in shear zones. From -10°C to -2°C there is progressive evolution of a final c-axis pattern that is asymmetric with respect to the direction of shortening, with a strong maximum at ~5° to the pole of the shear zone, a sense of asymmetry in the direction of the shear, and a secondary maximum inclined at ~45° to the plane of shearing. An initial c-axis preferred orientation plays a critical role in the initial mechanical evolution. In contrast to established ideas, a strong alignment of basal planes parallel to the plane of easy glide inhibited deformation and there was an increased component of strain hardening until recrystallization processes become dominant.