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In order to maximize the utility of future studies of trilobite ontogeny, we propose a set of standard practices that relate to the collection, nomenclature, description, depiction, and interpretation of ontogenetic series inferred from articulated specimens belonging to individual species. In some cases, these suggestions may also apply to ontogenetic studies of other fossilized taxa.
In Victoria, Australia, a statewide salt reduction partnership was launched in 2015. The aim was to measure Na intake, food sources of Na (level of processing, purchase origin) and discretionary salt use in a cross-section of Victorian adults prior to a salt reduction initiative. In 2016/2017, participants completed a 24-h urine collection (n 338) and a subsample completed a 24-h dietary recall (n 142). Participants were aged 41·2 (sd 13·9) years, and 56 % were females. Mean 24-h urinary excretion was 138 (95 % CI 127, 149) mmol/d for Na. Salt equivalent was 8·1 (95 % CI 7·4, 8·7) g/d, equating to about 8·9 (95 % CI 8·1, 9·6) g/d after 10 % adjustment for non-urinary losses. Mean 24-h intake estimated by diet recall was 118 (95 % CI 103, 133) mmol/d for Na (salt 6·9 (95 % CI 6·0, 7·8 g/d)). Leading dietary sources of Na were cereal-based mixed dishes (12 %), English muffins, flat/savoury/sweet breads (9 %), regular breads/rolls (9 %), gravies and savoury sauces (7 %) and processed meats (7 %). Over one-third (38 %) of Na consumed was derived from discretionary foods. Half of all Na consumed came from ultra-processed foods. Dietary Na derived from foods was obtained from retail stores (51 %), restaurants and fast-food/takeaway outlets (28 %) and fresh food markets (9 %). One-third (32 %) of participants reported adding salt at the table and 61 % added salt whilst cooking. This study revealed that salt intake was above recommended levels with diverse sources of intake. Results from this study suggest a multi-faceted salt reduction strategy focusing on the retail sector, and food reformulation would most likely benefit Victorians and has been used to inform the ongoing statewide salt reduction initiative.
Oryctocephalid trilobites are seldom abundant and often tectonically deformed, creating problems for robust species delimitation and compromising their utility in biostratigraphic and evolutionary studies. By studying more than 140 specimens recovered from the upper portion of the Combined Metals Member (Pioche Formation, Nevada; Cambrian Stage 4, Series 2), we exploit a rare opportunity to explore how morphological variation among oryctocephalid specimens is partitioned into intraspecific variation versus interspecific disparity. Qualitative and quantitative analyses reveal that two species are represented: Oryctocephalites palmeri Sundberg and McCollum, 1997 and Oryctocephalites sp. A, the latter known from a single cranidium stratigraphically below all occurrences of the former. In contrast to the conclusions of a previous study, there is no evidence of cranidial dimorphism in O. palmeri. However, that species exhibits considerable variation in cranidial shape and pygidial spine arrangement and number. Cranidial shape variation within O. palmeri is approximately one-half of the among-species disparity within the genus. Comparison of cranidial shape between noncompacted and compacted samples reveals that compaction causes significant change in mean shape and an increase in shape variation; such changes are interpretable in terms of observed fracture patterns. Nontaphonomic variation is partitioned into ontogenetic and nonallometric components. Those components share similar structure with each other and with interspecific disparity, suggesting that ontogenetic shape change might be an important source of variation available for selection. This highlights the importance of ontogenetic and taphonomic sources of variation with respect to species delimitation, morphospace occupation, and investigation of evolutionary patterns and processes.
The Ediacaran to lower Cambrian Chilhowee Group of the southern and central Appalachians records the rift-to-drift transition of the newly formed Iapetan margin of Laurentia. Body fossils are rare within the Chilhowee Group, and correlations are based almost exclusively on lithological similarities. A critical review of previous work highlights the relatively weak biostratigraphic and radiometric age constraints on the various units within the succession. Herein, we document a newly discovered fossil-bearing locality within the Murray Shale (upper Chilhowee Group) on Chilhowee Mountain, eastern Tennessee, and formally describe a nevadioid trilobite, Buenellus chilhoweensis n. sp., from that site. This trilobite indicates that the Murray Shale is of Montezuman age (provisional Cambrian Stage 3), which is older than the Dyeran (provisional late Stage 3 to early Stage 4) age suggested by the historical (mis)identification of “Olenellus sp.” from within the unit as reported by workers more than a century ago. Buenellus chilhoweensis n. sp. represents only the second known species of Buenellus, and demonstrates that the genus occupied both the Innuitian and Iapetan margins of Laurentia during the Montezuman. It is the oldest known trilobite from the Iapetan margin, and proves that the hitherto apparent absence of trilobites from that margin during the Montezuman was an artifact of inadequate sampling rather than a paleobiogeographic curiosity. The species offers a valuable biostratigraphic calibration point within a rock succession that has otherwise proven recalcitrant to refined dating.
To assess if there is a difference in salt intake (24 h urine collection and dietary recall) and dietary sources of salt (Na) on weekdays and weekend days.
A cross-sectional study of adults who provided one 24 h urine collection and one telephone-administered 24 h dietary recall.
Community-dwelling adults living in the State of Victoria, Australia.
Adults (n 598) who participated in a health survey (53·5 % women; mean age 57·1 (95 % CI 56·2, 58·1) years).
Mean (95 % CI) salt intake (dietary recall) was 6·8 (6·6, 7·1) g/d and 24 h urinary salt excretion was 8·1 (7·8, 8·3) g/d. Mean dietary and 24 h urinary salt (age-adjusted) were 0·9 (0·1, 1·6) g/d (P=0·024) and 0·8 (0·3, 1·6) g/d (P=0·0017), respectively, higher at weekends compared with weekdays. There was an indication of a greater energy intake at weekends (+0·6 (0·02, 1·2) MJ/d, P=0·06), but no difference in Na density (weekday: 291 (279, 304) mg/MJ; weekend: 304 (281, 327) mg/MJ; P=0·360). Cereals/cereal products and dishes, meat, poultry, milk products and gravy/sauces accounted for 71 % of dietary Na.
Mean salt intake (24 h urine collection) was more than 60 % above the recommended level of 5 g salt/d and 8–14 % more salt was consumed at weekends than on weekdays. Substantial reductions in the Na content of staple foods, processed meat, sauces, mixed dishes (e.g. pasta), convenience and takeaway foods are required to achieve a significant consistent reduction in population salt intake throughout the week.
On August 25, 2017, Hurricane Harvey made landfall near Corpus Christi, Texas. The ensuing unprecedented flooding throughout the Texas coastal region affected millions of individuals.1 The statewide response in Texas included the sheltering of thousands of individuals at considerable distances from their homes. The Dallas area established large-scale general population sheltering as the number of evacuees to the area began to amass. Historically, the Dallas area is one familiar with “mega-sheltering,” beginning with the response to Hurricane Katrina in 2005.2 Through continued efforts and development, the Dallas area had been readying a plan for the largest general population shelter in Texas. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:33–37)
The decrease in quality of Australian iron ore, coupled with the demand for more efficient energy use, means that closer monitoring and optimisation of process conditions for iron ore sinter production is required. Here, the suitability of using partial least-squares regression analysis of powder X-ray diffraction data, collected for iron ore sinter samples, for the prediction of iron ore sinter strength has been further assessed. In addition, a preliminary assessment of the effect of 2θ range on the quality of prediction has been made. For the purposes of process control, the level of correlation between predicted strength and actual sinter strength would inform an operator whether or not the process was operating within the acceptable limits, or whether there was a potential problem requiring further investigation or rapid intervention. Reducing the 2θ range was found to reduce the level of correlation between predicted and actual strength, to a point where the particular analysis may no longer be suitable for process control.
The electrochemical behaviour of a number of Pb-based anode alloys, under simulated electrowinning conditions, in a 1.6 M H2SO4 electrolyte at 45 °C was studied. Namely, the evolution of PbO2 and PbSO4 surface layers was investigated by quantitative in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction (S-XRD) and subsequent Rietveld-based quantitative phase analysis (QPA). In the context of seeking new anode alloys, this research shows that the industry standard Pb-0.08Ca-1.52Sn (wt%) anode, when exposed to a galvanostatic current and intermittent power interruptions, exhibited poor electrochemical performance relative to select custom Pb-based binary alloys; Pb–0.73Mg, Pb–5.05Ag, Pb–0.07Rh, and Pb–1.4Zn (wt%). The in situ S-XRD measurements and subsequent QPA indicated that this was linked to a lower proportion of β-PbO2, relative to PbSO4, on the Pb-0.08Ca-1.52Sn alloy at all stages of the electrochemical cycling. The best performing alloy, in terms of minimisation of overpotential during normal electrowinning operation and minimising the deleterious effects of repeated power interruptions – both of which are significant factors in energy consumption – was determined to be Pb–0.07Rh.
The thermal decomposition of mill scale, and the effect of mill scale addition on the formation and decomposition of Silico-Ferrite of Calcium and Aluminium (SFCA) and SFCA-I iron ore sinter bonding phases, has been investigated using in situ X-ray diffraction. Application of the external standard method of quantitative phase analysis of the in situ data collected during decomposition of the mill scale highlighted the applicability of this method for the determination of the nature and abundance of amorphous material in a mineral sample. Increasing mill scale addition from 2.6 to 10.6 and to 21.2 wt% in an otherwise synthetic sinter mixture composition designed to form SFCA did not significantly affect the thermal stability ranges of SFCA-I or SFCA, nor did it significantly affect the amount of each of SFCA or SFCA-I, which formed. This was attributed to the low impurity (i.e. Mn, Mg) concentration in the mill scale, and also the transformation to hematite during heating of the wüstite and magnetite present in the mill scale, with the hematite available for reaction to form SFCA and SFCA-I.
To update the estimate of mean salt intake for the Australian population made by the Australian Health Survey (AHS).
A secondary analysis of the data collected in a cross-sectional survey was conducted. Estimates of salt intake were made in Lithgow using the 24 h diet recall methodology employed by the AHS as well as using 24 h urine collections. The data from the Lithgow sample were age- and sex-weighted, to provide estimates of daily salt intake for the Australian population based upon (i) the diet recall data and (ii) the 24 h urine samples.
Lithgow, New South Wales, Australia.
Individuals aged ≥20 years residing in Lithgow and listed on the 2009 federal electoral roll.
Mean (95 % CI) salt intake estimated from the 24 h diet recalls was 6·4 (6·2, 6·7) g/d for the Lithgow population compared with a corresponding figure of 6·2 g/d for the Australian population derived from the AHS. The corresponding estimate of salt intake for Lithgow adults based upon the 24 h urine collections was 9·0 (8·6, 9·4) g/d. When the age- and sex-specific estimates of salt intake obtained from the 24 h urine collections in the Lithgow sample were weighted using Australian census data, estimated salt intake for the Australian population was 9·0 (8·6, 9·5) g/d. Further adjustment for non-urinary Na excretion made the best estimate of daily salt intake for both Lithgow and Australia about 9·9 g/d.
The dietary recall method used by the AHS likely substantially underestimated mean population salt consumption in Australia.
The formation and decomposition of silico-ferrite of calcium and aluminium (SFCA) and SFCA-I iron ore sinter bonding phases have been investigated using in situ synchrotron and laboratory X-ray diffraction (XRD) and neutron diffraction (ND). An external standard approach for determining absolute phase concentrations via Rietveld refinement-based quantitative phase analysis is discussed. The complementarity of in situ XRD and ND in characterising sinter phase formation and decomposition is also shown, with the volume diffraction afforded by the neutron technique reducing errors in the quantification of magnetite above ~1200 °C. Finally, by collecting 6 s laboratory XRD datasets and using a heating rate of 175 °C min−1, phase formation and decomposition have been monitored under heating rates more closely approximating those encountered in industrial iron ore sintering.
We present the results of an approximately 6 100 deg2 104–196 MHz radio sky survey performed with the Murchison Widefield Array during instrument commissioning between 2012 September and 2012 December: the MWACS. The data were taken as meridian drift scans with two different 32-antenna sub-arrays that were available during the commissioning period. The survey covers approximately 20.5 h < RA < 8.5 h, − 58° < Dec < −14°over three frequency bands centred on 119, 150 and 180 MHz, with image resolutions of 6–3 arcmin. The catalogue has 3 arcmin angular resolution and a typical noise level of 40 mJy beam− 1, with reduced sensitivity near the field boundaries and bright sources. We describe the data reduction strategy, based upon mosaicked snapshots, flux density calibration, and source-finding method. We present a catalogue of flux density and spectral index measurements for 14 110 sources, extracted from the mosaic, 1 247 of which are sub-components of complexes of sources.
Significant new opportunities for astrophysics and cosmology have been identified at low radio frequencies. The Murchison Widefield Array is the first telescope in the southern hemisphere designed specifically to explore the low-frequency astronomical sky between 80 and 300 MHz with arcminute angular resolution and high survey efficiency. The telescope will enable new advances along four key science themes, including searching for redshifted 21-cm emission from the EoR in the early Universe; Galactic and extragalactic all-sky southern hemisphere surveys; time-domain astrophysics; and solar, heliospheric, and ionospheric science and space weather. The Murchison Widefield Array is located in Western Australia at the site of the planned Square Kilometre Array (SKA) low-band telescope and is the only low-frequency SKA precursor facility. In this paper, we review the performance properties of the Murchison Widefield Array and describe its primary scientific objectives.
Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) is a descendant of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT). The model draws techniques from a wide variety of sources and unites them within a philosophical and scientific framework to create a principle-driven therapy. Psychopathology is understood as a narrowing behavioural repertoire that develops over time through maladaptive strategies to cope with unwanted private events. The six core components of the therapy remain consistent across a wide range of clinical conditions. The approach combines processes of acceptance and mindfulness with those of commitment and behavioural change to produce increased psychological flexibility and an expanded behavioural repertoire. Since its introduction in 1999 an increasing number of trials show promising results for a wide range of conditions.
The structure of cranidial shape variation in the early ptychoparioid trilobites Crassifimbra walcotti, Crassifimbra? metalaspis (new combination), and Eokochaspis nodosa is explored using landmark-based geometric morphometric techniques, and is found to be generally similar among the species. Allometry is the strongest single source of cranidial shape variation within each species. The species share several trends in their respective patterns of ontogenetic shape change, but differ in the relative magnitude of these shared trends. Species-specific trends are also present. Each species follows a unique trajectory of ontogenetic shape change. The species exhibit subtle but significant differences in mean cranidial shape even at small size (sagittal length 1.75 mm); the magnitude of interspecific differences becomes larger at larger size (sagittal length 4.2 mm).
For conspecific cranidia of a given size, the major pattern of covariance among anatomical parts is essentially identical to the pattern of covariance among those parts during ontogeny. Developmentally determined covariance patterns among cranidial regions might be responsible for ontogenetic shape change and a portion of non-allometric shape intraspecific variation. Interspecific differences in cranidial shape resulted from complex local modifications to growth pattern and cannot be attributed to simple ontogenetic scaling.
The new collections permit the first description of non-cranidial sclerites of C. walcotti. A cephalic median organ is documented on C. walcotti, representing the oldest known occurrence of this structure in trilobites.
Landmark-based geometric morphometrics is a powerful approach to quantifying biological shape, shape variation, and covariation of shape with other biotic or abiotic variables or factors. The resulting graphical representations of shape differences are visually appealing and intuitive. This paper serves as an introduction to common exploratory and confirmatory techniques in landmark-based geometric morphometrics. The issues most frequently faced by (paleo)biologists conducting studies of comparative morphology are covered. Acquisition of landmark and semilandmark data is discussed. There are several methods for superimposing landmark configurations, differing in how and in the degree to which among-configuration differences in location, scale, and size are removed. Partial Procrustes superimposition is the most widely used superimposition method and forms the basis for many subsequent operations in geometric morphometrics. Shape variation among superimposed configurations can be visualized as a scatter plot of landmark coordinates, as vectors of landmark displacement, as a thin-plate spline deformation grid, or through a principal components analysis of landmark coordinates or warp scores. The amount of difference in shape between two configurations can be quantified as the partial Procrustes distance; and shape variation within a sample can be quantified as the average partial Procrustes distance from the sample mean. Statistical testing of difference in mean shape between samples using warp scores as variables can be achieved through a standard Hotelling's T2 test, MANOVA, or canonical variates analysis (CVA). A nonparametric equivalent to MANOVA or Goodall's F-test can be used in analysis of Procrustes coordinates or Procrustes distance, respectively. CVA can also be used to determine the confidence with which a priori specimen classification is supported by shape data, and to assign unclassified specimens to pre-defined groups (assuming that the specimen actually belongs in one of the pre-defined groups).
Examples involving Cambrian olenelloid trilobites are used to illustrate how the various techniques work and their practical application to data. Mathematical details of the techniques are provided as supplemental online material. A guide to conducting the analyses in the free Integrated Morphometrics Package software is provided in the appendix.